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2-Butoxyethanol
Wess, J; Ahlers, H; Dobson, Stuart; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
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2-Furaldehyde
Cary, R; Dobson, Stuart; Gregg, N; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
2-Methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol and their acetates / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to 2-meth-oxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their two acetates: 2-methoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate. These glycol ethers have a wide range of uses as solvents with particular application in paints, stains, inks, lacquers, and the production of food-contact plastics. Sections concerned with sources of exposure note that patterns of use as evaporative solvents result in significant, widespread emissions to the environment, with grea potential for direct human exposure in industry, in small work-shops, and during home use of numerous consumer products. A review of data on environmental behaviour points to rapid degradation, supporting the conclusions that the risk of hazardous environmental concentrations is small and that human exposure through food, water, or the ambient air is probably negligible. A review of experimental studies of toxicity reveals strong and consistent evidence, across all species investigated, of adverse effects on the male reproductive system, developmental toxicity, and haematological toxicity. Although studies in humans are scarce, results from case reports and workplace epidemiological studies confirm the findings from animal research, pointing to a clear risk of disturbances in the male reproductive system and of embryotoxicity. The book concludes with a series of recommendations to authorities, including the need to find less toxic solvents, to alert users to the hazards of these chemicals, and to be aware that air monitoring alone is not an adequate measure of safety conditions at the workplace

2-Nitropropane / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 2-nitropropane, an important industrial chemical used as a solvent for printing inks, paints, varnishes, adhesives, and other coatings, such as beverage container linings. 2-Nitropropane is also used in printing inks for flexible food packaging and in food processing, primarily for the separation of oleic acid from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Though smokers are regularly exposed to low concentrations, exposure of the general population from other sources is judged to be very low. The most extensive section evaluates data from studies conducted in laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Studies show moderate acute toxicity for mammals, with considerable variation in the sensitivity of different laboratory animals. Studies conducted in the rat provide clear evidence of destructive changes in the liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The report found no conclusive evidence that 2-nitropropane causes cancer in other laboratory species. Concerning effects on humans, the report notes that exposure to high concentrations, which are acutely toxic, is largely or entirely confined to the occupational setting. An evaluation of toxic effects draws upon seven reports of industrial fatalities attributed to inhalation of 2-nitropropane fumes, with death due to acute hepatic failure in all cases. Although more research on long-term effects is needed, the report notes that available data provide no indication that chronic occupational exposure at concentrations usually encountered in the workplace induces hepatic or other neoplasms, or other long-term effects. Because 2-nitropropane is a potent carcinogen in rats, the report recommends that occupational exposure to this solvent, and its presence in consumer products, be minimized and replaced with a less toxic solvent whenever practical. The report recommends against the use of 2-nitropropane in food processing

2-Propanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

A production process, thus reducing the health risks to exposed workers. Experimental studies of toxicity point to effects similar to those of acute ethanol intoxication. A review of sources of human exposure draws attention to reports of life-threatening intoxication following the sponging of febrile children with 2-propanol preparations. While noting the need for further studies of carcinogenic activity, the report concludes that 2-propanol is unlikely to pose a serious health risk for the general population under normal conditions of exposure

200 [deux cents] millions de personnes sont touchées par la schistosomiase
( 1987 )
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200 African scientists join forces
( 2006 )
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2000–2003年规划预算方案
世界卫生大会, 54 ( 2001 )
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2000—2001年拟议预算:向区域的正常预算拨款及各区域预算外资金的利用:总干事的进展报告
执行委员会, 103 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年的效率节余
执行委员会, 110 ( 2002 )
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2000—2001年的效率节余和管理审评
执行委员会, 107 ( 2001 )
cwid2.pdf.jpg
2000—2001年规划预算方案:EB103.R6号决议的实施情况:秘书处的报告
世界卫生大会, 52 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年规划预算方案:专家委员会和科学小组会议
世界卫生大会, 52 ( 1999 )
ceid4.pdf.jpg
2000—2001年规划预算:劳动队伍状况
执行委员会, 103 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年规划预算:实际零增长的影响
执行委员会, 103 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年财务期会费评定比额
世界卫生大会, 52 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年财务期会费评定比额:总干事的报告
世界卫生大会, 52 ( 1999 )
c20.pdf.jpg
2000—2001年财务期拨款决议
世界卫生大会, 52 ( 1999 )
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2000—2001年财务期未经审计的2000年中期财务报告
世界卫生大会, 54 ( 2001 )
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2000—2001年预算方案:将行政和管理职能移交给管理支持处
执行委员会, 103 ( 1999 )
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