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HIV surveillance in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: regional update 2012
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean ( 2013 )
Abstract

The aim of this report is to provide an update on the assessment of the national HIV surveillance systems in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. The report presents the results of surveillance activities carried out in the countries in 2007–2012, the plans for the development of HIV surveillance in 2013–2017, and key strengths and weaknesses of, and obstacles to, HIV surveillance implementation

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HIV surveillance training modules: facilitator training guide for HIV surveillance : facilitator guide
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

Description: The training guide provides useful information about planning and organizing training activities for surveillance of HIV, AIDS, STI and risk behaviours. This training guide also describes steps for adapting the surveillance curriculum for staff working at district, regional/provincial and national levels. The guide will be useful for training directors and facilitators. It includes: a description of the surveillance curriculum that is developed and ready for adaptation in the country scheduling suggestions ideas for what to include in the training planning tips and checklists adult education training and presentation tips.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 1: overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic with an introduction to public health surveillance : module 1 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

This training module presents an introduction to the HIV epidemic and gives an overview of public health surveillance measures to combat the infection. After completing this course, participants should: know the three HIV epidemic states and be able to characterize the HIV/AIDS epidemic in their country be familiar with the predominant routes of HIV transmission and the key risk factors of transmission be able to describe the components of an effective HIV surveillance system and the elements of second generation HIV surveillance understand the ethics involved in HIV surveillance and be aware of potential harm to individuals and to populations be able to develop a plan for evaluating their own country's surveillance system. This course is meant primarily for district-level surveillance officers. This module can also be used for self-study.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 2: HIV clinical staging and case reporting : module 2 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

Description: This training module introduces HIV case surveillance with an emphasis on WHO clinical staging and surveillance case definitions, ethical and confidentiality considerations, analysis and presentation of surveillance data and operationalizing an HIV case reporting system. After completing this course, participants will learn how to: set up an HIV case reporting system analyse reported HIV and AIDS data use surveillance data for planning of prevention, care and treatment services monitor the HIV case reporting system prepare national guidelines on HIV/AIDS case reporting. This course is meant primarily for district-level surveillance officers. This module can also be used for self-study.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 3: HIV serosurveillance : module 3 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

This training module provides key issues in HIV sentinel surveillance and complementary surveillance techniques for tracking the epidemic, focusing on the steps to conduct unlinked anonymous HIV sero-prevalence surveys at antenatal clinics. After completing this course, participants should: understand the criteria for selecting sentinel populations and be able to identify specific groups and sites in their district that are suitable for sentinel surveillance be able to identify appropriate sampling schemes depending on the situation and the target population and create a sampling frame understand the considerations that determine which HIV testing approach is suited for HIV surveillance in their country and describe the advantages and disadvantages of different HIV testing options be able to describe the staffing, training and supervising requirements of HIV sentinel surveillance analyse, document and use HIV sentinel surveillance data. This course is meant primarily for district-level surveillance officers. This module can also be used for self-study.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 4: surveillance for sexually transmitted infections : module 4 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

This training module describes the interaction between HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and describes how to develop and operate systems for STI surveillance. After completing this course, participants should: understand the inter-relationship between HIV and STIs be able to explain the difference between aetiologic and syndromic case reporting understand the advantages and disadvantages of STI universal case reporting and sentinel surveillance and when each should be implemented know how to ensure confidentiality when collecting, archiving and reporting STI data be able to identify the STIs most suitable for inclusion in combined STI/HIV biological and behavioural surveillance. This course is meant primarily for district-level surveillance officers. This module can also be used for self-study.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 5: surveillance of HIV risk behaviours : module 5 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

This module introduces behavioural surveillance with an emphasis on pre-surveillance activities, measures and indicators, survey methods, sampling approaches, data use and ethical considerations. After completing this course, participants should: * identify the uses of behavioural surveillance * understand the methodological difficulties with indicators for behavioural surveillance and select indicators most suited to particular situations * understand sampling issues and options for behavioural surveillance and understand the criteria for choosing a sampling approach * describe the types of data analysis commonly used in behavioural surveillance and understand the steps in ensuring appropriate data analysis and use * be able to discuss the ethical consideration unique to behavioural surveillance. This course is meant primarily for state/national-level surveillance officers, planners and decision makers. This module can also be used for self-study.

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HIV surveillance training modules: Module 6: surveillance of populations at high risk for HIV transmission : module 6 - participant manual
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 2007 )
Abstract

Module 6 introduces HIV surveillance among high-risk populations. Eight high-risk populations are described in-depth with recommended surveillance techniques. Detailed case studies are provided for each population to help participants think through implementation. After completing this course, participants should: be able to discuss the importance of surveillance in high-risk populations understand the purpose of pre-surveillance assessments and the role of qualitative and quantitative research in these assessments be able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various sampling approaches be able to discuss how to choose the most effective biological and behavioural measures in surveys of high-risk groups understand the special ethical consideration of conducting behavioural and biological surveillance among high-risk groups. This course is meant primarily for state/national-level surveillance officers. This module can also be used for self-study. Module 5 is a prerequisite for this module.

HIV Testing among Patients with Presumptive Tuberculosis: How Do We Implement in a Routine Programmatic Setting? Results of a Large Operational Research from India
Harries, Anthony David; Shastri, Suresh; Naik, Balaji; Nair, Achuthan Sreenivas; Guddemane, Deepak K; Bhat, Prashant; Suryakanth, M D; Rangaraju, Chethana; Kanchar, Avinash; Gupta, R S; Gupta, Devesh; Kumar, Ashok; Dewan, Puneet; Rao, Raghuram; Kumar, Ajay Mv ( 2016-05-31 )
Abstract

In March 2012, World Health Organization recommended that HIV testing should be offered to all patients with presumptive TB (previously called TB suspects). How this is best implemented and monitored in routine health care settings in India was not known. An operational research was conducted in Karnataka State (South India, population 64 million, accounts for 10% of India's HIV burden), to test processes and learn results and challenges of screening presumptive TB patients for HIV within routine health care settings.In this cross-sectional study conducted between January-March 2012, all presumptive TB patients attending public sector sputum microscopy centres state-wide were offered HIV testing by the laboratory technician, and referred to the nearest public sector HIV counselling and testing services, usually within the same facility. The HIV status of the patients was recorded in the routine TB laboratory form and TB laboratory register. The laboratory register was compiled to obtain the number of presumptive TB patients whose HIV status was ascertained, and the number found HIV positive. Aggregate data on reasons for non-testing were compiled at district level.Overall, 115,308 patients with presumptive TB were examined for sputum smear microscopy at 645 microscopy centres state-wide. Of these, HIV status was ascertained for 62,847(55%) among whom 7,559(12%) were HIV-positive, and of these, 3,034(40%) were newly diagnosed. Reasons for non-testing were reported for 37,700(72%) of the 52,461 patients without HIV testing; non-availability of testing services at site of sputum collection was cited by health staff in 54% of respondents. Only 4% of patients opted out of HIV testing.Offering HIV testing routinely to presumptive TB patients detected large numbers of previously-undetected instances of HIV infection. Several operational challenges were noted which provide useful lessons for improving uptake of HIV testing in this important group.

HIV testing and care in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda: ethics on the ground
Desclaux, Alice; Bott, Sarah; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Baggaley, Rachel; Bayer, Ron ( 2013-01-23 )
Abstract

The ethical discourse about HIV testing has undergone a profound transformation in recent years. The greater availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a global scaling up of HIV testing and counseling as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care. In response, critics raised important ethical questions, including: How do different testing policies and practices undermine or strengthen informed consent and medical confidentiality? How well do different modalities of testing provide benefits that outweigh risks of harm? To what degree do current testing policies and programs provide equitable access to HIV services? And finally, what lessons have been learned from the field about how to improve the delivery of HIV services to achieve public health objectives and protections for human rights? This article reviews the empirical evidence that has emerged to answer these questions, from four sub-Saharan African countries, namely: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda.Expanding access to treatment and prevention in these four countries has made the biomedical benefits of HIV testing increasingly clear. But serious challenges remain with regard to protecting human rights, informed consent and ensuring linkages to care. Policy makers and practitioners are grappling with difficult ethical issues, including how to protect confidentiality, how to strengthen linkages to care, and how to provide equitable access to services, especially for most at risk populations, including men who have sex with men.The most salient policy questions about HIV testing in these countries no longer address whether to scale up routine PITC (and other strategies), but how. Instead, individuals, health care providers and policy makers are struggling with a host of difficult ethical questions about how to protect rights, maximize benefits, and mitigate risks in the face of resource scarcity.

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HIV testing and counselling : the gateway to treatment, care and support
World Health Organization. Dept. of HIV/AIDS; Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative ( 2003 )
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HIV testing in the WHO Western Pacific Region
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific ( 2009 )
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HIV testing in young children : technical briefing paper
World Health Organization. Dept. of HIV/AIDS ( 2011 )
HIV testing policies : an overview / J. P. Narain, S. Pattanayak, N. K. Shah
Narain, Jai P; Pattanayak, S; Shah, N. K ( 1993 )
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HIV test–treat–retain cascade analysis: guide and tools
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean ( 2014 )
Abstract

This guide was developed to support national AIDS programme managers and their partners to implement the HIV test–treat–retain cascade analysis at country level. It includes guidance on how to use the cascade model to assess the magnitude and determinants of engagement along the continuum of care and also opportunities to improve the delivery of services to PLHIV and, ultimately, access to HIV testing and treatment. It suggests a process for conducting the cascade analysis in country in order to achieve broad stakeholder participation, consensus on the findings of the analysis and ownership of the conclusions and recommendations for improvements resulting from it

HIV Transmission Risk Persists During the First 6 Months of Antiretroviral Therapy
Mujugira, Andrew; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Ndase, Patrick; Baeten, Jared M; Coombs, Robert W; Mugo, Nelly; Were, Edwin; Campbell, James D; Celum, Connie ( 2016-04-06 )
Abstract

Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases the risk of sexual HIV transmission by suppressing blood and genital HIV RNA concentrations. However, HIV transmission risk may persist prior to achieving complete viral suppression.Prospective cohort study.Using data from the Partners PrEP Study, a prospective study of 4747 heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we examined multiple markers of HIV transmission risk during the first months after ART initiation: time to viral suppression in blood, persistence of HIV RNA in genital specimens, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy incidence, and HIV transmission using survival analysis and GEE logistic regression.The cumulative probabilities of achieving blood viral suppression (<80 copies/ml) 3, 6 and 9-months after ART initiation were 65.3%, 84.8% and 89.1%, respectively. Endocervical and seminal HIV RNA were detectable in 12% and 21% of samples obtained within 6-months of ART. Pregnancy incidence was 8.8 per 100 person-years during the first 6-months of ART, and sex unprotected by condoms was reported at 10.5% of visits. Among initially uninfected partners, HIV incidence before ART was 2.08 per 100 person-years (55 infections; 2644 person-years), 1.79 for 0-6 months after ART initiation (3 infections; 168 person-years), and 0.00 with >6 months of ART (0 infections; 167 person-years).Residual HIV transmission risk persists during the first 6-months of ART, with incomplete viral suppression in blood and genital compartments. For HIV-serodiscordant couples in which the infected partner starts ART, other prevention options are needed, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, until viral suppression is achieved.

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HIV transmission through breastfeeding : a review of available evidence. 2007 update
World Health Organization ( 2008 )
HIV treatment as prevention: debate and commentary--will early infection compromise treatment-as-prevention strategies?
Cohen, Myron S; Williams, Brian G; Powers, Kimberly A; Miller, William C; Fraser, Christophe; Dye, Christopher ( 2012-07-10 )
Abstract

Universal HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy for infected individuals has been proposed as a way of reducing the transmission of HIV and thereby bringing the HIV epidemic under control. It is unclear whether transmission during early HIV infection--before individuals are likely to have been diagnosed with HIV and started on antiretroviral therapy--will compromise the effectiveness of treatment as prevention. This article presents two opposing viewpoints by Powers, Miller, and Cohen, and Williams and Dye, followed by a commentary by Fraser.

HIV treatment guidelines for adults and adolescents : current topics
( 2000 )
HIV treatment newsletter : Recent publications and sources of information
( 2003 )
Showing results 68566 to 68585 of 206815 < previous   next >