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Historia de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Primera epoca: 1902-1920
Organización Panamericana de la Salud ( 1953 )
Historia, ciencias sociales y educaci'on médica / Mario Hern'andez y Emilio Quevedo
Hern'andez, Mario; Quevedo, Emilio ( 1992 )
Historical account of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Sri Lanka.
Vitarana, Tissa; Jayakuru, WS; Withane, Nalini ( 1997-12 )
Historical background and future trends in biomedical research
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 1975-12-09 )
Historical development of health professions- education in the Arab world
Kronfol, N.M. ( 2012 )

This paper reviews the historical development of health professions'education in the Arab countries and highlights the role that the World Health Organization has played in the support of the health workforce. Challenges such as the migration of health professionals, the need for additional educational opportunities in public health and in the management of health services and the need to adapt education to address the needs of society are discussed. Efforts are needed to develop further the quality and relevance of education and to address the needs of the health systems and the welfare of communities. The production of research in cooperation with policy-makers to enhance decisions and policies based on evidence needs increased attention

Historical development of health systems in the Arab countries: a review
Kronfol, N.M. ( 2012 )

In the first of 5 papers about health systems and services in the Arab countries, the historical development of health systems over the past 3 decades is reviewed. The evolution of health care has been impressive with major strides accomplished by governments to improve the health status of their respective population. However, the progress has been uneven in view of the differentials in resources and opportunities. This development was made possible through the implementation of national social and economic development agendas. Most of the Arab countries adopted the declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978. The United Nations agencies and especially the World Health Organization have expanded support to all the Arab countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Key challenges to health systems remain. Member States are encouraged to address these challenges in concert with all concerned stakeholders. Efforts are needed to promote the centrality of health in comprehensive socioeconomic development

The historical development of the current theory on the mechanism of infection of the mosquito by the malaria parasite / by L. M. Howard
Howard, L. M; World Health Organization ( 1961 )
Historical notes on the bionomics and distribution of malaria vectors in Israel / by Z. Saliternik
Saliternik, Z; World Health Organization ( 1974 )
Historique de la théorie actuelle du mécanisme d' infestation des moustiques par le parasite du paludisme / par L. M. Howard
Howard, L. M; World Health Organization ( 1961 )
History of chemotherapy of leprosy
Noordeen, Shaik K ( 2015-10-28 )

Chemotherapy of leprosy over the past 70 years has passed through several phases, from sulfones, to clofazimine, and to highly bactericidal drugs like rifampicin. The use particularly of the more potent drugs in effective combinations and the development of standard multidrug therapy regimens have made a huge difference in the successful treatment of leprosy as well as in reducing tremendously the prevalence of leprosy globally. A major contributing factor to development of better drugs and drug combinations has been the introduction of the mouse footpad model to evaluate the in vivo activity of drugs against Mycobacterium leprae. The World Health Organization has recommended multidrug therapy, which has been used to treat more than 15 million patients in the last 30 years and has set an excellent record with regard to its very high rate of cure, very low occurrence of relapse, and very rare occurrence of drug resistance.

History of disorders of thyroid dysfunction
Ahmed, A.M.; Ahmed, N.H. ( 2005 )

The first description of thyroid diseases as they are known today was that of Graves disease by Caleb Parry in 1786, but the pathogenesis of thyroid disease was not discovered until 1882-86. Thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism was first performed in 1880, and antithyroid drugs and radioiodine therapy were developed in the early 1940s. Thomas Curling first described hyopothyroidism [myxoedema] in 1850 and the cause and suitable treatment were established after 1883. This paper reviews the main l and marks in the history of thyroid disease, supplemented by a brief discussion of the historically relevant scientific aspects of the thyroid gl and, and the evolution of endocrinology as a formal discipline

History of miscarriage as a risk factor for hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant Iraqi women
Al Kubaisy, W.A.; Niazi, A.D.; Kubba, K. ( 2002 )

Sera from 3491 pregnant women were screened for the presence of HCV antibodies [anti-HCV]. HCV genotyping was also performed on the sera of 94 women. The overall anti-HCV seroprevalence was 3.21%. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was significantly positively correlated with the number of miscarriages. Miscarriage was a significant risk factor for the acquisition of HCV infection from the first miscarriage up to the fifth, the risk increasing with increasing number of miscarriages. A higher proportion of women with a history of miscarriage harboured HCV-1b compared to those with no miscarriage

History of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; World Health Organization ( 2009 )
HIV -- to test or not to test?
Sartorius, Norman; Bailey, Pearl; Carrasco, Ignazio; Castro, Emilio; Dawson, John; Dembelé, M; Garai, François; Keilau, H; Kirby, Michael; Kouchner, Bernard; Pokrovski, Vladimir ( 1989 )
HIV : will effective treatment demand early diagnosis?
( 1995 )
HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy
Hope, Vivian; Jolley, Emma; Wilson, David; Platt, Lucy; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Rhodes, Tim ( 2012-10-18 )

HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live.A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of 'enabling' environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented.Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID.HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies.The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments.

HIV among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review and data synthesis
Mumtaz, Ghina R; Thomas, Sara L; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Wilson, David; Tawil, Oussama; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Semini, Iris; Weiss, Helen A ( 2014-06-17 )

BACKGROUND: It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000-1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%-15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high prevalence of sharing needles/syringes (18%-28% in the last injection), the low levels of condom use (20%-54% ever condom use), the high levels of having sex with sex workers and of men having sex with men (15%-30% and 2%-10% in the last year, respectively), and of selling sex (5%-29% in the last year), indicate a high injecting and sexual risk environment. The prevalence of HCV (31%-64%) and of sexually transmitted infections suggest high levels of risk behavior indicative of the potential for more and larger HIV epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a large volume of HIV-related biological and behavioral data among PWID in the MENA region. The coverage and quality of the data varied between countries. There is robust evidence for HIV epidemics among PWID in multiple countries, most of which have emerged within the last decade and continue to grow. The lack of sufficient evidence in some MENA countries does not preclude the possibility of hidden epidemics among PWID in these settings. With the HIV epidemic among PWID in overall a relatively early phase, there is a window of opportunity for prevention that should not be missed through the provision of comprehensive programs, including scale-up of harm reduction services and expansion of surveillance systems.

HIV and adolescents: guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV : annex 1 : key terms and definitions
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
HIV and adolescents: guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV : annex 11(a): values and preferences: ALHIV survey
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
HIV and adolescents: guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV : annex 11(b): values and preferences: ALHIV care, treatment, and attitudes – literature review
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
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