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Duration and determinants of interbirth interval: community-based survey of women in southern Jordan
Youssef, R.M. ( 2005 )
Abstract

The duration and determinants of interbirth intervals among women of reproductive age in Karak, Jordan were examined in October 2003. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 1109 ever-married women aged 15-49 years who contributed to 4349 interbirth intervals. Data were obtained by interview questionnaire and analysed with life table, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses. The median interbirth interval was 27.40 months. Longer interbirth interval was independently predicted by breastfeeding > or = 12 months, modern contraceptive use and pregnancy wastage; by more surviving children, presence of boys only or both boys and girls at the interval onset; by woman's higher education, older age and longer marriage; and by ideal spacing conforming with family planning norms. Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, extend breastfeeding, promote small family size, address gender preferences and reinforce the minimum age at marriage should be made

WHO_Mal_506.65.pdf.jpg
Duration of antimalarial activity of cycloguanil pamoate among semi-immune Africans in Tanzania / by D. F. Clyde
Clyde, D. F; World Health Organization ( 1965 )
EB11_55_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of Health Assemblies
Executive Board, 11 ( 1952 )
WHA6.58_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of Health Assembly sessions
World Health Assembly, 6 ( 1953 )
EB10_20_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of Health Assembly sessions
Executive Board, 10 ( 1952 )
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Duration of immunity following immunization with live measles vaccine : 15 years of observation in Zhejiang Province, China / Dai Bin ... [et al.]
Dai, Bin; Chen, Zhihui; Liu, Qichang; Wu, Ting; Guo, Chengyin; Wang, Xingzi; Fang, Hanhua; Xiang, Yongzhong ( 1991 )
AFR_RC46_R3_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of Regional Committee Sessions
Regional Committee for Africa, 46 ( 1996 )
EB11R68_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of sessions of the Health Assembly
Executive Board, 11 ( 1953 )
WHA5.49_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of sessions of the Health Assembly
World Health Assembly, 5 ( 1952 )
EB10R23_eng.pdf.jpg
Duration of sessions of the Health Assembly
Executive Board, 10 ( 1952 )
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Duration of short-lived cross-protective immunity against a clinical attack of dengue: A preliminary estimate.
Nishiura, Hiroshi ( 2008-12 )
Abstract

It is believed that primary infection with a single serotype of dengue virus elicits short-lived cross-protective immunity against other heterologous serotypes; however, the duration of cross-protectionhas not been explicitly estimated using epidemiological data. To offer an empirical estimate of theduration, the present study re-analysed historical cohort data of multiple clinical attacks of dengueamong American soldiers in the Philippines from 1922–24. In the original study, the historical cohortof 299 cases with a first clinical attack of dengue were closely surveyed; 99 (33.1%) experienced asecond attack, while the remaining 200 returned to the United States without further attacks. The timeintervals from first to second attack among the 99 cases, and from first attack to departure to the United States among the 200 soldiers, were used for estimating the duration of cross-protective immunitybased on a simple mathematical model. Employing an exponential distribution or Kronecker’s deltafunction as the loss function of cross-protection against a second clinical attack, the mean duration ofcross-protective immunity since the first clinical attack was estimated as 6.90 (4.87, 11.83) days and7.52 (4.88, 16.38) days, respectively. The force of infection, which was jointly estimated with theduration of cross-protection, reasonably explained the other observed epidemiological information inthe data, supporting the finding of a short cross-protection period. Even though the estimates suggestedthat the first clinical attack most likely elicited cross-protective immunity, the length of cross-protectionlasted only 1–2 weeks, far shorter than previously believed.

Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy
Roganti, Ariel; Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano ( 2011-12-07 )
Abstract

A Cochrane systematic review has shown that drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment.To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2011) and reference lists of identified articles.Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria.We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently.We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with four- to seven-day treatments. The trials were generally of limited quality. The 'no cure rate' for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly higher for the single-dose than for the short-course treatment; however, these results were not statistically significant and showed heterogeneity. When comparing the trials that used the same antibiotic in both treatment and control groups with the trials that used different antibiotics in both groups, the 'no cure rate' risk ratio was similar. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria rate between treatment and control groups. Slight differences were detected for preterm births and pyelonephritis although, apart from one trial, the sample size of the trials was inadequate. Single-dose treatment was associated with a decrease in reports of 'any side-effects' .Single-dose regimen of antibiotics may be less effective than the seven-day regimen. Women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated by the standard regimen of antibiotics until more data become available testing seven-day compared with three- or five-day regimens.

Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy
Lopez, Ivana; Roganti, Ariel; Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano ( 2015-11-11 )
Abstract

A previous Cochrane systematic review has shown that antibiotic drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment.To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015) and reference lists of identified articles.Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria.Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach.We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with short-course (four- to seven-day) treatments. The risk of bias of trials included in this review was largely unclear, and most trials were at high risk of performance bias. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. When the any antibiotic agent was used, the 'no cure' rate for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly lower for the short-course treatment over the single-dose treatment, although there was evidence of statistical heterogeneity (average risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.88; women = 1502, studies = 13; I² = 56%; very low quality evidence). Data from only good quality trials also showed better cure rates with short (four- to seven-day) regimens of the same microbial agent (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.33; women = 803, studies = two; I² = 0%; high quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the recurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria rate between treatment and control groups, whether the same or different microbial agents were used (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.66; 445 women studies = eight; I² = 0%; very low quality evidence). Differences were detected for low birthweight babies, favoring a short course (four- to seven-day treatment) of the same microbial agent, although the data come from a single trial (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.57; 714 women; high quality evidence), but no differences were observed for preterm delivery (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.78; women = 804; studies = three; I² = 23%; moderate quality) or pyelonephritis (RR 3.09, 95% CI 0.54 to 17.55; women = 102; studies = two; I² = 0%; very low quality evidence). Finally, single-dose treatment of any microbial agent was associated with a decrease in reports of 'any side effects' (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.88; 1460 women, studies = 12; I² = 9%; low quality evidence). Evidence was downgraded for risk of bias concerns in trials contributing data and for imprecise effect estimates (wide confidence intervals crossing the line of no effect, and in some cases, small studies with few events).A single-dose regimen of antibiotics may be less effective than a short-course (four- to seven-day) regimen, but more evidence is needed from large trials measuring important outcomes, such as cure rate. Women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated by the standard regimen of antibiotics until more data become available testing seven-day treatment compared with shorter courses of three- or five-day regimens.

Durée de conservation et stabilité
( 1989 )
EB10_20_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Conseil exécutif, 10 ( 1952 )
EB11_55_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Conseil exécutif, 11 ( 1952 )
WHA6.58_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Assemblée mondiale de la Santé, 6 ( 1953 )
EB10R23_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Conseil exécutif, 10 ( 1952 )
EB11R68_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Conseil exécutif, 11 ( 1968 )
WHA5.49_fre.pdf.jpg
Durée des sessions de l'Assemblée de la Santé
Assemblée mondiale de la Santé, 5 ( 1952 )
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