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CORRIGENDUM, TO No. 6, 2012 : Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, December 2011 = RECTIFICATIF AU No 6, 2012 : Comité consultatif mondial de la Sécurité vaccinale, décembre 2011
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
CORRIGENDUM. WER 1983, 58, No. 41 = RECTIFICATIF : REH 1983,58, N°41
World Health Organization ( 1984 )
CORRIGENDUM. WER 1984, 59, No. 43, p. 331 = RECTIFICATIF : REH 1984, 59, N°43, p. 331
World Health Organization ( 1984 )
CORRIGENDUM. WER 1985, 60, No. 37, p. 285 : EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION Reappraisal of early OPV and DPT immunization = RECTIFICATIF: REH 1985, 60, N° 37, p. 285 : PROGRAMME ÉLARGI DE VACCINATION Réévaluation des vaccinations précoces VPO et DTC
World Health Organization ( 1985 )
World Health Organization ( 1985 )
World Health Organization ( 1985 )
Corrigendum: update of the expanded programme on immunization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean ( 1985 )
[Cortisol rhythm during Ramadan]
Ben Salem, L.; B'chir, S.; Bchir, F.; Bouguerra, R.; Ben Slama, C. ( 2003 )

We studied the nyctohemeral cortisol secretion rhythm and the cortisol response to 1-24 corticotropin during Ramadan in 11 healthy, male volunteers aged 20-35 years. Their response to 250 mg 1-24 corticotropin was investigated 2 weeks before Ramadan by testing daily at 08:00 and 20:00 hours. After 16-22 days of fasting, their cortisol levels were measured at 08:00 hours and their response to 1-24 corticotropin at 20:00 hours. Before Ramadan, the baseline cortisol level was significantly higher at 08:00 hours than at 20:00 hours and the cortisol response to 1-24 corticotropin was also higher at 08:00 hours but this difference was not significant. During Ramadan, the cortisol level at 08:00 hours was lower than at the same time before Ramadan; the level at 20:00 hours was slightly higher than at the same time before Ramadan. There was no significant difference between the cortisol response to 1-24 corticotropin at 20:00 hours during Ramadan and the responses before Ramadan at 20:00 hours and 08:00 hours

Cost analysis for management of rehabilitation programmes
World Health Organization. Rehabilitation Unit ( 1997 )
Cost analysis in primary health care : a training manual for programme managers / edited by Andrew Creese and David Parker
Creese, Andrew L; Parker, David; World Health Organization ( 1994 )

A highly practical guide to the use of cost analysis as a tool for improving the efficiency of primary health care, whether at the national, regional or district level. Addressed to programme managers, the book responds to the urgent need for information that helps make the best use of scarce resources. With this need in mind, the book uses abundant explanations, examples, exercises, and timely reminders to demystify economic concepts and show how they can be used to measure programme costs, assess efficiency, and guide wise decisions The manual gives particular attention to simple methods and simple calculations in line with the reality of managerial options in district programms. The inclusion of numerous training exercises makes the material suitable for either individual study or a short training course. The manual contains twelve modules presented in three parts. Modules in the first part introduce the basic concept of financial costs and look at the factors that influence programme efficiency. Modules in the second part, on cost-effective analysis, describe the concepts of economic costs and household costs and explain how cost-effectiveness analysis can be used as a decision-making tool. The final part discusses and illustrates several important uses of cost and cost-effectiveness data for planning and management. Modules describe methods for estimating future costs, preparing a budget, using cost data in financial analysis, and improving managerial efficiency. The book concludes with a series of 37 training exercises

Cost analysis in surveillance operations in the consolidation phase / by C. W. Göckel
Göckel, C. W; World Health Organization ( 1961 )
Cost analysis of integrating the PrePex medical device into a voluntary medical male circumcision program in Zimbabwe
Mugurungi, Owen; Hatzold, Karin; Jaramillo, Juan; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Edgil, Dianna; Forsythe, Steven; Kripke, Katharine; Reed, Jason; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Castor, Delivette ( 2014-05-06 )

BACKGROUND: Fourteen African countries are scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention. Several devices that might offer alternatives to the three WHO-approved surgical VMMC procedures have been evaluated for use in adults. One such device is PrePex, which was prequalified by the WHO in May 2013. We utilized data from one of the PrePex field studies undertaken in Zimbabwe to identify cost considerations for introducing PrePex into the existing surgical circumcision program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the cost drivers and overall unit cost of VMMC at a site providing surgical VMMC as a routine service ("routine surgery site") and at a site that had added PrePex VMMC procedures to routine surgical VMMC as part of a research study ("mixed study site"). We examined the main cost drivers and modeled hypothetical scenarios with varying ratios of surgical to PrePex circumcisions, different levels of site utilization, and a range of device prices. The unit costs per VMMC for the routine surgery and mixed study sites were $56 and $61, respectively. The two greatest contributors to unit price at both sites were consumables and staff. In the hypothetical scenarios, the unit cost increased as site utilization decreased, as the ratio of PrePex to surgical VMMC increased, and as device price increased. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC unit costs for routine surgery and mixed study sites were similar. Low service utilization was projected to result in the greatest increases in unit price. Countries that wish to incorporate PrePex into their circumcision programs should plan to maximize staff utilization and ensure that sites function at maximum capacity to achieve the lowest unit cost. Further costing studies will be necessary once routine implementation of PrePex-based circumcision is established.

Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies Nalinee Sangrujee, Victor Cáceres and Stephen L. Cochi
Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor; Cochi, Stephen L ( 2004 )
Cost analysis of selected WHO publications / a report from Administrative Management ; submitted by J. A. Jorgensen, H. K. Larsen, R. A. Sundaram
Jorgensen, J. A; Larsen, H. K; Sundaram, R. A; World Health Organization. Office of Administrative Management and Evaluation ( 1986 )
Cost and benefit of fluoride in the prevention of dental caries / by G. N. Davies
Davies, George Neville; World Health Organization ( 1974 )
Cost and burden of dengue and chikungunya from the Americas to Asia.
Shepard, Donald S ( 2010-12 )

The ten studies in this special issue document the substantial and growing burden of dengue in the Americas, Africa and Asia, and the burden of a chikungunya outbreak in India. Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figuedo’s paper on dengue in Brazil confirms the country’s worsening trend from 1999–2009, where cases rose at 6.2% per year and dengue deaths at 12.0% per year. Carmen Perez and co-workers, reporting on dengue vector control in Puerto Rico, found that 83% of the costs (US$ 1.97 per person per year) were funded by the lowest and often the least financed level of government: municipalities. Examining dengue cases imported into France, Guy LaRuche documented the alarming increase in cases originating from Cote d’Ivoire from only one case in 2006–07 to six cases in 2008. Using modeling and Monte Carlo simulations, Tiina Murtola and co-authors estimated the “immediate” cost of chikungunya and dengue in India at US$ 1.48 billion (range US$ 0.64 billion to US$ 3.60 billion). Tapasvi Puwar and co-workers, reporting on a 2006 household survey in Ahmedabad, found that only 23% of chikungunya cases sought care in public facilities, so that under-reporting must be considerable. Extending the analysis of this chikungunyua outbreak, Dileep Mavalankar and co-authors placed its economic cost at US$ 8.6-US$ 17.3 million. Ami T. Bhavsar and co-authors, studying dengue cases hospitalized at a private hospital in Surat, India, found that the economic cost of a case averaged US$ 585.57 (US$ 439.44 for direct medical costs and US$ 146.13 for indirect costs). Lee Han Lim and coworkers, estimated the “immediate” cost of dengue to Malaysia and Thailand at US$ 133 to $135 million, respectively. Sukhontha Kongsin and co-authors found that on a per capita basis, costs of dengue in Thailand in 2005 averaged US$ 3.55, of which 28% was due to vector control and 72% due to dengue illness. Examining the burden of dengue on households in Cambodia, Jose A Suaya and co-authors found that and 53% needed to sell household property to fund dengue treatment. Effective methods to prevent the disease would, therefore, result in important economic benefits in many tropical countries.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of newborn home visits: findings from the Newhints cluster-randomised controlled trial in rural Ghana
Hill, Zelee; Hanson, Kara; Kirkwood, Betty R; Manu, Alexander; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H A; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Soremekun, Seyi; Tawiah, Theresa; Pitt, Catherine ( 2015-11-27 )

Every year, 2·9 million newborn babies die worldwide. A meta-analysis of four cluster-randomised controlled trials estimated that home visits by trained community members in programme settings in Ghana and south Asia reduced neonatal mortality by 12% (95% CI 5-18). We aimed to estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of newborn home visits in a programme setting.We prospectively collected detailed cost data alongside the Newhints trial, which tested the effect of a home-visits intervention in seven districts in rural Ghana and showed a reduction of 8% (95% CI -12 to 25%) in neonatal mortality. The intervention consisted of a package of home visits to pregnant women and their babies in the first week of life by community-based surveillance volunteers. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) with Monte Carlo simulation and one-way sensitivity analyses and characterised uncertainty with cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. We then modelled the potential cost-effectiveness for baseline neonatal mortality rates of 20-60 deaths per 1000 livebirths with use of a meta-analysis of effectiveness estimates.In the 49 zones randomly allocated to receive the Newhints intervention, a mean of 407 (SD 18) community-based surveillance volunteers undertook home visits for 7848 pregnant women who gave birth to 7786 live babies in 2009. Annual economic cost of implementation was US$203 998, or $0·53 per person. In the base-case analysis, the Newhints intervention cost a mean of $10 343 (95% CI 2963 to -7674) per newborn life saved, or $352 (95% CI 104 to -268) per discounted life-year saved, and had a 72% chance of being highly cost effective with respect to Ghana's 2009 gross domestic product per person. Key determinants of cost-effectiveness were the discount rate, protective effectiveness, baseline neonatal mortality rate, and implementation costs. In the scenarios modelled with the meta-analysis results, the ICER increased from $127 per life-year saved at a neonatal mortality rate of 60 deaths per 1000 livebirths, to $379 per life-year saved at a rate of 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths. The strategy had at least a 99% probability of being highly cost effective for lower-middle-income countries in all neonatal mortality rate scenarios modelled, and at least a 95% probability of being highly cost effective for low-income countries at neonatal mortality rates of 30 or more deaths per 1000 livebirths.Our findings show that the seemingly modest mortality reductions achieved by a newborn home-visit strategy might in fact be cost effective. In Ghana, such strategies are also likely to be affordable. Our findings support recommendations from WHO and UNICEF that low-income and middle-income countries implement newborn home visits.The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UK Department for International Development, WHO.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of public-private mix DOTS : evidence from two pilot projects in India
Stop TB Partnership ( 2004 )
The cost and impact of alternative strategies for monitoring child patients on ART
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania / Vanessa Rommelmann ... [et al.]
Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, David; Whiting, David; Boerma, J. Ties ( 2005 )
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