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Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants : a simulation model / Jay S. Ross and Philip W. J. Harvey
Ross, Jay S; Harvey, Philip W. J ( 2003 )
Contribution of China for 1973
Executive Board, 51 ( 1973 )
Contribution of China for 1973: report by the Director-General
Executive Board, 51 ( 1973 )
Contribution of clinical pharmacologists to government : opportunities and challenges
( 2009 )
Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012-2015
Diop, Ousmane; Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Craig, Kehinde; Muhammad, Ado J G; Vaz, Rui G; Johnson Muluh, Ticha; Adeniji, Johnson; Tegegne, Sisay G; Banda, Richard; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Musa, Audu; Ayodeji, Isiaka; Nicksy, Gumede; Andrew, Etsano; Akande, Adefunke; Mkanda, Pascal; Nsubuga, Peter ( 2016-02-21 )

Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly's resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015.The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2-4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4°C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation.From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged <5 year in Borno and Yobe states.This article is among the first from Africa that relates ES findings to key public health interventions (mass immunization campaigns, inactivated polio vaccine introduction, and strengthening of AFP surveillance) that have contributed to the interruption of poliovirus transmission in Nigeria.

Contribution of health research to evidence-based policy and decision-making
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia ( 1999-02-26 )
Contribution of laboratories in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the selection of candidate seasonal influenza vaccine, 2010-2015
McCauley, J; Asghar, H; Malik, M; Khan, W; Browne, H M ( 2016-10-02 )

The World Health Organization (WHO) formulates recommendations for viruses to be included in vaccines for the influenza seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres on the basis of analyses by its collaborating centres (CCs). This report describes the contribution of influenza laboratories and national influenza centres in countries in the WHO Region for the Eastern Mediterranean to the selection process of seasonal and pre-pandemic influenza virus subtypes. Data submitted by 22 countries to FluNet and FluID between September 2010 and June 2015 were analysed. National Influenza Centres (NICs) in 12 countries (55%) reported data, 5 (23%) to both FluNet and FluID and 7 (32%) only to FluNet. The WHO CC in London characterized 78% of the samples, and the CC in Atlanta, characterized 21%. The contribution of influenza laboratories and NICs from this Region to global influenza surveillance is appreciable. However, enhancing the contribution through initiatives such as the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework is still needed.

Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): lessons learnt & challenges ahead
Nair, Sanjeev; Jethani, S L; Balasangameshwara, V H; Suri, J C; Kannan, A T; Khushwa, S S; Dhingra, Saroj; Behera, D; Keshav Chander, G; Ramachandran, Rajeswari; Singla, Rupak; Saxena, P; Paramasivan, C N; Tripathy, S P; Awadh, N T; Mundade, Yamuna; Munje, Radha; Prasad, Rajendra; Mohan, Alladi; Mesquita, A M; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Om; Maitra Malay, K; Vaidyanathan, Preetish; Kushwaha, R S; Bansal, Avi; Santosha; Frieden, T R; Laskar, B; Sharma, Nandini; Balasubramanian, Rani; Ravindran, C; Dhooria Harmeet, S; Venu, K; Sahu, S; Singh, Varinder; Da Costa, A L; Sinha, Sanjay; Sharma, Geetanjali; Dep, Jaydip; Kalra, V P; Nagpal, Somil; Singh, N Tombi; Agarwal, Priyanka; Chadha, Sarabjit; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Jawahar, M S; Subhakar, Kandi; Baruwa, Pranab; Phukan, A C; Narain, J P; Granich, Reuben; Janmeja, A K; Sarkar, Soumya; Narayanan, O R; Sarin, Rohit; Kumar, P; Shridhar, P K; Vashist, R P; Bhardwaj, A K; Talukdar, Palash; Nagaraja, C; Chaddha, V K; Garg, Anil; Srinath, S; Gulati, Vinay; Sehgal, Shruti; Solanki, Rajesh; Gupta, Dheeraj; Kalra, O P; Shukla, R S; John, K R; Leuva, A T; Sinha, Neena; Sinha, Pranay; Dash, D P; Gupta, K N; Chauhan, L S; Gupta, K B; Prasanna, Raj; Kumar, Ashok; Sreenivas, A; Sarma, K C; Tonsing, Jamie; Kumar, Vinod; Bhargav, Salil; Baruah, S; Kayshap, S; Purty, Anil; Sharma, Surendra K; Parmar, Malik; Reddy Raveendra, H R; Jaikishan; Mathew, Thomas; Chhatwal, Manpreet; Jindal, S K; Sachdeva, K S; Leela Itty Amma, K R; Sharath, N ( 2013-02-01 )

Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of 'new smear-positives' diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement.

Contribution of polio eradication initiative to effective new vaccine introduction in Africa, 2010-2015
Nyembo, Poy Alain; Carole Tevi-Benissan, Mable; Zawaira, Felicitas; Mihigo, Richard; Moturi, Edna; Anya, Blanche-Philomene Melanga; Okeibunor, Joseph; Aschalew, Teka; Dicky, Akanmori Barthlomew; Mbulu, Leon Kinuam ( 2016-07-05 )

Significant progress has been made to increase access to vaccines in Africa since the 1974 launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Successes include the introduction of several new vaccines across the continent and likely eradication of polio. We examined the contribution of polio eradication activities (PEI) on new vaccine introduction in the countries of the African Region.We reviewed country specific PEI reports to identify best practices relevant to new vaccine introduction (NVI), and analyzed trends in vaccine coverage during 2010-2015 from immunization estimates provided by WHO/UNICEF.Of the 47 countries in African Region 35 (74%) have introduced PCV, 27 (57%) have introduced rotavirus, and 14 (30%) have introduced IPV. National introductions for HPV vaccine have been done in 5 countries, while 15 countries have held demonstration and pilot projects. In 2014, the regional coverage for the third dose of PCV (PCV3) and rotavirus vaccines was 50% and 30% respectively. By end of 2015, all countries within the meningitis belt will have introduced MenAfriVac™ vaccine.PEI activities had a positive effect in strengthening the process of new vaccine introduction in the African Region. The major contribution was in availing immunization funding and providing trained and experienced technical staff to introduce vaccines. More investment is needed to advocate and sustain funding levels to maintain the momentum gained in introducing new vaccines in the region.

Contribution of polio eradication initiative to strengthening routine immunization: Lessons learnt in the WHO African region
Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Carole Tevi-Benissan, Mable; Zawaira, Felicitas; Mihigo, Richard; Moturi, Edna; Poy, Alain Nyembo; Anya, Blanche-Philomene Melanga; Okeibunor, Joseph; Aschalew, Teka; Mbulu, Kinuam Leon ( 2016-07-07 )

Important investments were made in countries for the polio eradication initiative. On 25 September 2015, a major milestone was achieved when Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries. Routine Immunization, being a key pillar of polio eradication initiative needs to be strengthened to sustain the gains made in countries. For this, there is a huge potential on building on the use of polio infrastructure to contribute to RI strengthening.We reviewed estimates of immunization coverage as reported by the countries to WHO and UNICEF for three vaccines: BCG, DTP3 (third dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid- pertussis), and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1).We conducted a systematic review of best practices documents from eight countries which had significant polio eradication activities.Immunization programmes have improved significantly in the African Region. Regional coverage for DTP3 vaccine increased from 51% in 1996 to 77% in 2014. DTP3 coverage increased >3 folds in DRC (18-80%) and Nigeria from 21% to 66%; and >2 folds in Angola (41-87%), Chad (24-46%), and Togo (42-87%). Coverage for BCG and MCV1 increased in all countries. Of the 47 countries in the region, 18 (38%) achieved a national coverage for DTP3 ⩾90% for 2years meeting the Global Vaccine Action (GVAP) target. A decrease was noted in the Ebola-affected countries i.e., Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.PEI has been associated with increased spending on immunization and the related improvements, especially in the areas of micro planning, service delivery, program management and capacity building. Continued efforts are needed to mobilize international and domestic support to strengthen and sustain high-quality immunization services in African countries. Strengthening RI will in turn sustain the gains made to eradicate poliovirus in the region.

The contribution of reproductive ill-health to the overall burden of perceived illness among women in southern India / Jagdish Bhatia and John Cleland
Bhatia, Jagdish C; Cleland, John G ( 2001 )
The Contribution of satellite derived information to malaria stratification, monitoring and early warning / S. J. Connor ... [et al.]
Connor, S. J; Flasse, S. P; Perryman, A. H; Thomson, M. C; World Health Organization. Division of Control of Tropical Diseases ( 1997 )
Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25×25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study
Rehm, Jürgen; Ezzati, Majid; Riley, Leanne M; Beaglehole, Robert; Mathers, Colin D; Shield, Kevin D; Poznyak, Vladimir; Stevens, Gretchen A; Bonita, Ruth; Kontis, Vasilis ( 2014-05-02 )

BACKGROUND: Countries have agreed to reduce premature mortality (defined as the probability of dying between the ages of 30 years and 70 years) from four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs)--cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes--by 25% from 2010 levels by 2025 (referred to as 25×25 target). Targets for selected NCD risk factors have also been agreed on. We estimated the contribution of achieving six risk factor targets towards meeting the 25×25 mortality target. METHODS: We estimated the impact of achieving the targets for six risk factors (tobacco and alcohol use, salt intake, obesity, and raised blood pressure and glucose) on NCD mortality between 2010 and 2025. Our methods accounted for multi-causality of NCDs and for the fact that when risk factor exposure increases or decreases, the harmful or beneficial effects on NCDs accumulate gradually. We used data for risk factor and mortality trends from systematic analyses of available country data. Relative risks for the effects of individual and multiple risks, and for change in risk after decreases or increases in exposure, were from re-analyses and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. FINDINGS: If risk factor targets are achieved, the probability of dying from the four main NCDs between the ages of 30 years and 70 years will decrease by 22% in men and by 19% in women between 2010 and 2025, compared with a decrease of 11% in men and 10% in women under the so-called business-as-usual trends (ie, projections based on current trends with no additional action). Achieving the risk factor targets will delay or prevent more than 37 million deaths (16 million in people aged 30-69 years and 21 million in people aged 70 years or older) from the main NCDs over these 15 years compared with a situation of rising or stagnating risk factor trends. Most of the benefits of achieving the risk factor targets, including 31 million of the delayed or prevented deaths, will be in low-income and middle-income countries, and will help to reduce the global inequality in premature NCD mortality. A more ambitious target on tobacco use (a 50% reduction) will almost reach the target in men (>24% reduction in the probability of death), and enhance the benefits to a 20% reduction in women. INTERPRETATION: If the agreed risk factor targets are met, premature mortality from the four main NCDs will decrease to levels that are close to the 25×25 target, with most of these benefits seen in low-income and middle-income countries. On the basis of mortality benefits and feasibility, a more ambitious target than currently agreed should be adopted for tobacco use. FUNDING: UK MRC.

The contribution of social science research to malaria prevention and control / Holly Ann Williams ... [et al.]
Williams, Holly Ann; Jones, Caroline; Alilio, Martin; Zimicki, Susan; Azevedo, Inez; Nyamongo, Isaac; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Meek, Sylvia; Diop, Samba; Bloland, Peter B; Greenwood, Brian M ( 2002 )
Contribution of the African Region to the Eighth General Programme of Work
Regional Committee for Africa, 36 ( 1986 )
Contribution of the community health volunteers in the control of Buruli ulcer in Benin
Stienstra, Ymkje; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Edorh, Patrick A; van der Werf, Tjip S; Johnson, Roch Christian; Houezo, Jean Gabin; Aguiar, Julia; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Agossadou, Didier; Chauty, Annick; Asiedu, Kingsley ( 2014-10-02 )

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Usually BU begins as a painless nodule, plaque or edema, ultimately developing into an ulcer. The high number of patients presenting with ulcers in an advanced stage is striking. Such late presentation will complicate treatment and have long-term disabilities as a consequence. The disease is mainly endemic in West Africa. The primary strategy for control of this disease is early detection using community village volunteers.In this retrospective, observational study, information regarding Buruli ulcer patients that reported to one of the four BU centers in Bénin between January 2008 and December 2010 was collected using the WHO/BU01 forms. Information used from these forms included general characteristics of the patient, the results of diagnostic tests, the presence of functional limitations at start of treatment, lesion size, patient delay and the referral system. The role of the different referral systems on the stage of disease at presentation in the hospital was analyzed by a logistic regression analysis. About a quarter of the patients (26.5%) were referred to the hospital by the community health volunteers. In our data set, patients referred to the hospital by community health volunteers appeared to be in an earlier stage of disease than patients referred by other methods, but after adjustment by the regression analysis for the health center, this effect could no longer be seen. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for IS2404 positivity rate among patients referred by the community health volunteers was not systematically lower than in patients referred by other systems.This study clarifies the role played by community health volunteers in Bénin, and shows that they play an important role in the control of BU.

Contribution of the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (FTAI) to smallpox control in East Africa / by D. Courtois
Courtois, D ( 1970 )
Contribution of the Spanish protectorate zone in Morocco
Executive Board, 15 ( 1955 )
Contribution of traditional medicine to public health: coca leaf: report by the Secretariat
Executive Board, 120 ( 2007 )
Contribution of WHO to the follow up of the United Nations General Assembly special session on HIV/AIDS: report by the Secretariat
Executive Board, 111 ( 2003 )
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