Browsing by Title
Contribution of polio eradication initiative to strengthening routine immunization: Lessons learnt in the WHO African region
Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Carole Tevi-Benissan, Mable; Zawaira, Felicitas; Mihigo, Richard; Moturi, Edna; Poy, Alain Nyembo; Anya, Blanche-Philomene Melanga; Okeibunor, Joseph; Aschalew, Teka; Mbulu, Kinuam Leon ( 2016-07-07 )
Important investments were made in countries for the polio eradication initiative. On 25 September 2015, a major milestone was achieved when Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries. Routine Immunization, being a key pillar of polio eradication initiative needs to be strengthened to sustain the gains made in countries. For this, there is a huge potential on building on the use of polio infrastructure to contribute to RI strengthening.We reviewed estimates of immunization coverage as reported by the countries to WHO and UNICEF for three vaccines: BCG, DTP3 (third dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid- pertussis), and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1).We conducted a systematic review of best practices documents from eight countries which had significant polio eradication activities.Immunization programmes have improved significantly in the African Region. Regional coverage for DTP3 vaccine increased from 51% in 1996 to 77% in 2014. DTP3 coverage increased >3 folds in DRC (18-80%) and Nigeria from 21% to 66%; and >2 folds in Angola (41-87%), Chad (24-46%), and Togo (42-87%). Coverage for BCG and MCV1 increased in all countries. Of the 47 countries in the region, 18 (38%) achieved a national coverage for DTP3 ⩾90% for 2years meeting the Global Vaccine Action (GVAP) target. A decrease was noted in the Ebola-affected countries i.e., Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.PEI has been associated with increased spending on immunization and the related improvements, especially in the areas of micro planning, service delivery, program management and capacity building. Continued efforts are needed to mobilize international and domestic support to strengthen and sustain high-quality immunization services in African countries. Strengthening RI will in turn sustain the gains made to eradicate poliovirus in the region.
The contribution of reproductive ill-health to the overall burden of perceived illness among women in southern India / Jagdish Bhatia and John Cleland
Bhatia, Jagdish C; Cleland, John G ( 2001 )
The Contribution of satellite derived information to malaria stratification, monitoring and early warning / S. J. Connor ... [et al.]
Connor, S. J; Flasse, S. P; Perryman, A. H; Thomson, M. C; World Health Organization. Division of Control of Tropical Diseases ( 1997 )
Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25×25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study
Rehm, Jürgen; Ezzati, Majid; Riley, Leanne M; Beaglehole, Robert; Mathers, Colin D; Shield, Kevin D; Poznyak, Vladimir; Stevens, Gretchen A; Bonita, Ruth; Kontis, Vasilis ( 2014-05-02 )
BACKGROUND: Countries have agreed to reduce premature mortality (defined as the probability of dying between the ages of 30 years and 70 years) from four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs)--cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes--by 25% from 2010 levels by 2025 (referred to as 25×25 target). Targets for selected NCD risk factors have also been agreed on. We estimated the contribution of achieving six risk factor targets towards meeting the 25×25 mortality target. METHODS: We estimated the impact of achieving the targets for six risk factors (tobacco and alcohol use, salt intake, obesity, and raised blood pressure and glucose) on NCD mortality between 2010 and 2025. Our methods accounted for multi-causality of NCDs and for the fact that when risk factor exposure increases or decreases, the harmful or beneficial effects on NCDs accumulate gradually. We used data for risk factor and mortality trends from systematic analyses of available country data. Relative risks for the effects of individual and multiple risks, and for change in risk after decreases or increases in exposure, were from re-analyses and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. FINDINGS: If risk factor targets are achieved, the probability of dying from the four main NCDs between the ages of 30 years and 70 years will decrease by 22% in men and by 19% in women between 2010 and 2025, compared with a decrease of 11% in men and 10% in women under the so-called business-as-usual trends (ie, projections based on current trends with no additional action). Achieving the risk factor targets will delay or prevent more than 37 million deaths (16 million in people aged 30-69 years and 21 million in people aged 70 years or older) from the main NCDs over these 15 years compared with a situation of rising or stagnating risk factor trends. Most of the benefits of achieving the risk factor targets, including 31 million of the delayed or prevented deaths, will be in low-income and middle-income countries, and will help to reduce the global inequality in premature NCD mortality. A more ambitious target on tobacco use (a 50% reduction) will almost reach the target in men (>24% reduction in the probability of death), and enhance the benefits to a 20% reduction in women. INTERPRETATION: If the agreed risk factor targets are met, premature mortality from the four main NCDs will decrease to levels that are close to the 25×25 target, with most of these benefits seen in low-income and middle-income countries. On the basis of mortality benefits and feasibility, a more ambitious target than currently agreed should be adopted for tobacco use. FUNDING: UK MRC.
The contribution of social science research to malaria prevention and control / Holly Ann Williams ... [et al.]
Williams, Holly Ann; Jones, Caroline; Alilio, Martin; Zimicki, Susan; Azevedo, Inez; Nyamongo, Isaac; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Meek, Sylvia; Diop, Samba; Bloland, Peter B; Greenwood, Brian M ( 2002 )
Contribution of the African Region to the Eighth General Programme of Work
Regional Committee for Africa, 36 ( 1986 )
Contribution of the community health volunteers in the control of Buruli ulcer in Benin
Stienstra, Ymkje; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Edorh, Patrick A; van der Werf, Tjip S; Johnson, Roch Christian; Houezo, Jean Gabin; Aguiar, Julia; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Agossadou, Didier; Chauty, Annick; Asiedu, Kingsley ( 2014-10-02 )
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Usually BU begins as a painless nodule, plaque or edema, ultimately developing into an ulcer. The high number of patients presenting with ulcers in an advanced stage is striking. Such late presentation will complicate treatment and have long-term disabilities as a consequence. The disease is mainly endemic in West Africa. The primary strategy for control of this disease is early detection using community village volunteers.In this retrospective, observational study, information regarding Buruli ulcer patients that reported to one of the four BU centers in Bénin between January 2008 and December 2010 was collected using the WHO/BU01 forms. Information used from these forms included general characteristics of the patient, the results of diagnostic tests, the presence of functional limitations at start of treatment, lesion size, patient delay and the referral system. The role of the different referral systems on the stage of disease at presentation in the hospital was analyzed by a logistic regression analysis. About a quarter of the patients (26.5%) were referred to the hospital by the community health volunteers. In our data set, patients referred to the hospital by community health volunteers appeared to be in an earlier stage of disease than patients referred by other methods, but after adjustment by the regression analysis for the health center, this effect could no longer be seen. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for IS2404 positivity rate among patients referred by the community health volunteers was not systematically lower than in patients referred by other systems.This study clarifies the role played by community health volunteers in Bénin, and shows that they play an important role in the control of BU.