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Is estimating maternal mortality useful? : editorial / Pierre Buekens
Buekens, Pierre ( 2001 )
Is excess male infant mortality from sudden infant death syndrome and other respiratory diseases X-linked?
Mage, David T; Donner, E Maria ( 2013-12-20 )
Abstract

AIM: Male excess infant mortality is well known but unexplained. In 2004, we reported sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other infant respiratory deaths showed a ~50% male excess in the United States between 1979 and 2002. This study analyses expanded US data from 1968 to 2010 to see whether infant respiratory deaths still show similar ~50% male excess and may be X-linked. METHODS: The analysis compared infant mortality data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1968-2010, with 11 World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD) rubric groups for respiratory deaths by accidents, congenital anomalies, respiratory diseases and causes unknown. RESULTS: The 11 ICD groupings presented male excesses of ~50% and combining the 453,953 US cases produced a male fraction of 0.6034, a 52.1% male excess. A further 72,380 non-US respiratory cases showed a similar 0.6055 male fraction, a 53.5% male excess. CONCLUSION: The constant ~50% male excess for quite different causes of respiratory death suggests they all have a common terminal event and that is acute anoxic encephalopathy. We hypothesise that this constant male excess phenomenon must be caused by a single X-linked gene, with a recessive condition, leading to a predisposition to succumb to acute anoxic encephalopathy.

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Is globalization good for your health? / David Dollar
Dollar, David ( 2001 )
Is H9N2 avian influenza virus a pandemic potential?
Rave, Supriya; Alexander, Paul E; De, Prithwish ( 2009-01-01 )
Is household air pollution a risk factor for eye disease?
Araj, Houmam; Lee, David J; Chen, Dong Feng; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Lee, Jennifer S; Schaumberg, Debra A; West, Sheila K; Bates, Michael N ( 2013-10-25 )
Abstract

In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted.

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Is it leflunomide lung
( 2009 )
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Is it necessary to continue indefinitely DDT residual spraying programmes ? : relevant observations made in Greece / by G. Livadas
Livadas, G; WHO Expert Committee on Malaria ( 1952 )
Is It Necessary To Place Prophylactically an Abdominal Drain To Prevent Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Operations? A Systematic Meta-Review
Li, Jieshou; Wu, Xiuwen; Kubilay, Nejla Zeynep; Ren, Jianan; Tian, Weiliang ( 2016-08-11 )
Abstract

There is still uncertainty regarding the use of prophylactic drainage in abdominal surgical procedures. This meta-review aimed to summarize systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating abdominal drain placement in patients undergoing abdominal procedures, with a focus on surgical site infection and death from infections.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization Regional Medical Databases, and African Index Medicus were reviewed.Fifteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning prophylactic abdominal drainage in abdominal operations were included in this analysis. The median score of methodologic quality was eight (6-10). The majority of meta-analyses found no benefits of prophylactic drainage in reducing surgical site infection, but no significant differences were identified. Three studies demonstrated a significant difference in favor of no drainage, with two regarding cholecystectomy and one on appendectomy (p < 0.05). The quality of evidence provided by each review was mainly low and very low.Most reviews fail to detect an increased incidence of surgical site infection in the setting of drainage placement but also fail to attribute any specific benefits to the presence of a drain in abdominal procedures.

Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?
Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S ( 2016-06-01 )
Abstract

Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden.

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Is it the nicotine or the tobacco? / David Sweanor
Sweanor, David ( 2000 )
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Is Liver Damage Dependent on the Serotype of Dengue Virus?-A Study in Maxico.
Vazquez-Pichardo, M; Rosales-Jimenez, C; Rojas-Espinosa, O; Lopez-Martinez, I ( 2006-12 )
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Is malnutrition declining? : an analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980 / Mercedes de Onis, Edward A. Frongillo, and Monika Blössner
De Onis, Mercedes; Frongillo, Edward A; Blössner, Monika ( 2000 )
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Is Q fever an emerging infection in Turkey?
Gozalan, A.; Esen, B.; Rolain, J.M.; Akin, L.; Raoult, D. ( 2005 )
Abstract

Between 4 May and 8 August 2002,46 cases of acute fever were reported near the Black Sea region in northern Turkey. The infection was treated rapidly and successfully with tetracyclines, so clinical diagnosis of rickettsial or ehrlichial infection was considered. Analysis of serum and blood samples taken from 19 patients identified the causative organism as Coxiella burnetii; 7 cases were reported as acute Q fever and 8 as seropositive for past infection. The most common clinical symptoms among the acute cases were vomiting [100.0%], nausea [85.7%], diarrhoea [57.1%], fever [42.9%], abdominal pain [42.9%] and headache [42.9%]. Liver enzymes were elevated in all patients. It is considered that epidemiological investigation for Q fever will be essential in the affected region in future

Is registration of foreign medical teams needed for disaster response? Findings from the response to Typhoon Haiyan
Buenaventura, Joel; Zagaria, Nevio; Peiris, Sasha ( 2015-10-01 )
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Is routine vaccination a necessity in a smallpox eradication programme? / by P.A. Koswara
Koswara, P. A; World Health Organization; International Assessment of Smallpox Eradication in Indonesia (1974) ( 1974 )
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Is routine vaccination a necessity in a smallpox eradication programme? / by P.A. Koswara
Koswara, P. A; World Health Organization; WHO Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication (1970 : New Delhi, India) ( 1970 )
Is screening for diabetes among tuberculosis patients feasible at the field level?
Kumar, A M V; Swamy, N M V; Nair, S; Naik, B; Isaakidis, P; Suryakant, M D; Satyanarayana, S; Harries, A D ( 2013-11-01 )
Abstract

SETTING: Seventeen peripheral health institutions (PHI) in Kolar district (population: 0.5 million), South India. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and results of screening patients with tuberculosis (TB) for diabetes mellitus (DM) at peripheral level. DESIGN: From January to September 2012, all TB patients were assessed for DM. Those with unknown DM status were screened for the disease (free of charge) by trained laboratory technicians at each PHI, using a glucometer supplied by the national programme on a capillary blood sample. Those with fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl (≥7 mM) were diagnosed as DM-positive. RESULTS: Of 362 TB patients, 358 (99%) were assessed for DM and 62 (17.1%) had the diseases-53 (14.6%) had a previous history of DM and 9 (2.9%) were newly diagnosed. All new DM patients were enrolled into DM care. Higher DM prevalence was found among TB patients aged ≥40 years, smokers and those with smear-positive pulmonary TB. To detect a new case of DM, the number needed to screen (NNS) among TB patients was 40. CONCLUSION: Screening of TB patients for DM was feasible and effective in a peripheral setting. The availability of trained laboratory technicians and free services at every PHI made the intervention feasible. The study has contributed towards a national policy decision in this regard.

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Is stored expressed breast milk an alternative for working Egyptian mothers?
Ezz El Din, Z.M.; Abdel Ghaffar, S.; El Gabry, E.K.; Fahmi, W.A.; Bedair, R.F. ( 2004 )
Abstract

Expression and storage of breast milk is way to maintain breastfeeding when mother and infant are separated, if the nutritional value can be conserved. Three expressed breast milk samples were collected from 61 healthy lactating mothers in Cairo, Egypt, for determination of total protein, fat, lactose and zinc content, as well as vitamins C, A and E concentrations. One sample was analysed immediately without storage, 1 after storage for 24 hours in a refrigerator [4 degrees C] and 1 after storage for 1 week in a home freezer [-4 degrees C to -8 degrees C]. Refrigeration and freezing of breast milk caused a statistically significant decline in levels of vitamins C, A and E. Nevertheless, the values of all nutrients were still within the international reference ranges for mature breast milk

Is the Hippocratic Oath an anachronism? [letter] / Spyros G. Marketos, Athanassios A. Diamandopoulos, Christos B. Moschos
Marketos, Spyros G; Diamandopoulos, Athanassios A; Moschos, Christos B ( 1995 )
Is the WHO Guide on Essential Practice of Postpartum Newborn Care Used in a District Health Care Facility?
Schultz, Andreas; Stüfe, Ansgar; Klinkott, Reinhard; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Krüger, Carsten; Stich, August; Weber, Martin; Komba, Gaudens; Mushi, Venance ( 2016-06-17 )
Abstract

It is unclear whether algorithms with evidence-based interventions are used in a setting where the work load is high and qualified staff is scarce to identify neonates with life-threatening conditions.The nurse-midwives' knowledge and opinion about the World Health Organization (WHO) guide on postpartum newborn care were assessed in a hospital in Tanzania before and after training. Their adherence to this guide was evaluated by analysing 100 neonatal records.Before training, 44% of the nurse-midwives were familiar with the WHO guide. All nurse-midwives supported the implementation of the guide. In all, 21% of the postpartum record forms were fully completed. Risk factors for illness were missed in 27%.Nurse-midwives' expertise in the WHO guide on postpartum newborn care cannot be taken for granted. The complexity of this guide demands expertise and makes its use time-consuming and thus its practicability disputable in a setting with limited resources.

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