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1st Workshop on Pilot Implementation of the Performance Assessment Tool for quality improvement in Hospitals (PATH) : Barcelona, Spain, 22-24 February 2004
Workshop on Pilot Implementation of the Performance Assessment Tool for quality improvement in Hospitals (PATH) (1st : 2004 : Barcelona, Spain); World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 2004 )
Abstract

The objective of this workshop was to organize the pilot implementation of a Performance Assessment Tool for quality improvement in Hospitals (PATH) developed by WHO Europe in a sample of hospitals in six European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Lithuania, Poland/Silesia Region and Slovakia) and two countries outside Europe (South Africa/Kwazulu Natal and Canada/Ontario). The PATH project aims to provide tools to support hospitals in assessing their performance, questioning their own results, and translating them into actions for improvement, or benchmarking. At the workshop, a group of experts in performance assessment and country focal points drawn from hospital managers, physicians, technical experts in information systems, etc., drafted a strategic plan for each participating country, identifying key stakeholders, roles and responsibilities and priorities for action, agreed on recommendations on standard operational definitions of indicators across countries, and discussed data collection issues and data quality control mechanisms. A calendar for implementation was agreed upon. All participants were aware that comparisons are sensitive and should be interpreted with great caution because of varying local contexts. This is incremented at international level. PATH relies as much as possible on available data to minimize the burden of data collection. A template for data collection is being prepared. Mobilizing staff at all levels will be an important factor to the access of the project

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2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
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2,4,6-Tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols
Howe, Paul D; Dobson, Stuart; Malcolm, H. M; World Health Organization. Chemical Safety Team; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2005 )
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ( 1984 )
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D: Environmental Aspects) ( 1989 )
Abstract

Appraises the risks to organisms and ecological systems posed by the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a selective herbicide which kills broad-leaved plants but not grasses or conifers. Evaluation is restricted to studies conducted at exposures that could be expected in the field. The opening sections underscore the importance of the physico-chemical properties and formulation of 2,4-D on its behaviour in environmental compartments. Against this background, separate sections are then devoted to the evaluation of risks to microorganisms, aquatic organisms, and terrestrial organisms. Numerous tables are used to summarize the large number of studies indicating toxicity to different species, no-observed-effect levels in different species, and variations in the toxicity of different formulations. The final section considers data on ecological effects from field applications. On the basis of the evidence reviewed, the book concludes that, when used under field conditions and at recommended rates, 2,4-D does not appear to produce direct toxic effects on any animal species

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1987 )
2-butanol : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
2-Butanol : health and safety guide
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1987 )
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2-butenal
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 2008 )
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2-Butoxyethanol
Wess, J; Ahlers, H; Dobson, Stuart; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
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2-Furaldehyde
Cary, R; Dobson, Stuart; Gregg, N; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
2-Methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol and their acetates / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to 2-meth-oxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their two acetates: 2-methoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate. These glycol ethers have a wide range of uses as solvents with particular application in paints, stains, inks, lacquers, and the production of food-contact plastics. Sections concerned with sources of exposure note that patterns of use as evaporative solvents result in significant, widespread emissions to the environment, with grea potential for direct human exposure in industry, in small work-shops, and during home use of numerous consumer products. A review of data on environmental behaviour points to rapid degradation, supporting the conclusions that the risk of hazardous environmental concentrations is small and that human exposure through food, water, or the ambient air is probably negligible. A review of experimental studies of toxicity reveals strong and consistent evidence, across all species investigated, of adverse effects on the male reproductive system, developmental toxicity, and haematological toxicity. Although studies in humans are scarce, results from case reports and workplace epidemiological studies confirm the findings from animal research, pointing to a clear risk of disturbances in the male reproductive system and of embryotoxicity. The book concludes with a series of recommendations to authorities, including the need to find less toxic solvents, to alert users to the hazards of these chemicals, and to be aware that air monitoring alone is not an adequate measure of safety conditions at the workplace

2-Nitropropane / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 2-nitropropane, an important industrial chemical used as a solvent for printing inks, paints, varnishes, adhesives, and other coatings, such as beverage container linings. 2-Nitropropane is also used in printing inks for flexible food packaging and in food processing, primarily for the separation of oleic acid from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Though smokers are regularly exposed to low concentrations, exposure of the general population from other sources is judged to be very low. The most extensive section evaluates data from studies conducted in laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Studies show moderate acute toxicity for mammals, with considerable variation in the sensitivity of different laboratory animals. Studies conducted in the rat provide clear evidence of destructive changes in the liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The report found no conclusive evidence that 2-nitropropane causes cancer in other laboratory species. Concerning effects on humans, the report notes that exposure to high concentrations, which are acutely toxic, is largely or entirely confined to the occupational setting. An evaluation of toxic effects draws upon seven reports of industrial fatalities attributed to inhalation of 2-nitropropane fumes, with death due to acute hepatic failure in all cases. Although more research on long-term effects is needed, the report notes that available data provide no indication that chronic occupational exposure at concentrations usually encountered in the workplace induces hepatic or other neoplasms, or other long-term effects. Because 2-nitropropane is a potent carcinogen in rats, the report recommends that occupational exposure to this solvent, and its presence in consumer products, be minimized and replaced with a less toxic solvent whenever practical. The report recommends against the use of 2-nitropropane in food processing

2-Propanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

A production process, thus reducing the health risks to exposed workers. Experimental studies of toxicity point to effects similar to those of acute ethanol intoxication. A review of sources of human exposure draws attention to reports of life-threatening intoxication following the sponging of febrile children with 2-propanol preparations. While noting the need for further studies of carcinogenic activity, the report concludes that 2-propanol is unlikely to pose a serious health risk for the general population under normal conditions of exposure

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2. PORTS APPROVED AND DESIGNATED FOR THE ISSUE OF DERATTING CERTIFICATS AND DERATTING EXEMPTION CERTIFICATS = 2. PORTS AGRÉÉS ET DÉSIGNÉS POUR LA DÉLIVRANCE DES CERTIFICATS DE DÉRATISATION ET D’EXEMPTION DE LA DÉRATISATION
World Health Organization ( 1954 )
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2. QUARANTINE MEASURES AND VACCINATION CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENTS : FOREWORD = 2. MESURES QUARANTENAIRES ET CERTIFICATS DE VACCINATION EXIGÉS : AVANT-PROPOS
World Health Organization ( 1955 )
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2. QUARANTINE MEASURES AND VACCINATION CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENTS = 2. MESURES QUARANTENAIRES ET CERTIFICATS DE VACCINATION EXIGÉS
World Health Organization ( 1954 )
200 [deux cents] millions de personnes sont touchées par la schistosomiase
( 1987 )
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200 African scientists join forces
( 2006 )
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2000–2003年规划预算方案
世界卫生大会, 54 ( 2001 )
Showing results 725 to 744 of 198547 < previous   next >