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Efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a small sample of Sudanese children
Adam, I.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Aelbasit, I.A.; El Bashir, M.I. ( 2004 )

A prospective clinical trial was carried out to determine in vivo efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in New Halfa. Forty patients were enrolled; 31 completed the 28-day follow-up. Six [19.4%] patients showed recurrence of parasitaemia during follow-up, while the rest [80.6%] cleared the parasites and responded fully to treatment. All the failures were late treatment failures. Parasite genotyping showed that 1 [16.7%] of the 6 cases of late parasitaemia was due to reinfection while the rest [83.4%] were due to true recrudescence. During the follow-up period 22.6% of patients showed gametocytaemia. The high level of treatment failure as well as gametocytaemia necessitates the introduction of artesunate in this combination therapy

Efficacy of the combination rifampin-streptomycin in preventing growth of Mycobacterium ulcerans in early lesions of Buruli ulcer in humans
Amofah, G; Ampadu, E; Phillips, R; Wansbrough-Jones, M; Klustse, E; Ofori-Adjei, D; Owusu-Boateng, J; Lucas, S; Amedofu, G K; Awuah, P; Asiedu, K; Evans, M; Carbonnelle, B; Etuaful, S; Horsfield, C; Grosset, J ( 2005-08-01 )

Mycobacterium ulcerans disease is common in some humid tropical areas, particularly in parts of West Africa, and current management is by surgical excision of skin lesions ranging from early nodules to extensive ulcers (Buruli ulcer). Antibiotic therapy would be more accessible to patients in areas of Buruli ulcer endemicity. We report a study of the efficacy of antibiotics in converting early lesions (nodules and plaques) from culture positive to culture negative. Lesions were excised either immediately or after treatment with rifampin orally at 10 mg/kg of body weight and streptomycin intramuscularly at 15 mg/kg of body weight daily for 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks and examined by quantitative bacterial culture, PCR, and histopathology for M. ulcerans. Lesions were measured during treatment. Five lesions excised without antibiotic treatment and five lesions treated with antibiotics for 2 weeks were culture positive, whereas three lesions treated for 4 weeks, five treated for 8 weeks, and three treated for 12 weeks were culture negative. No lesions became enlarged during antibiotic treatment, and most became smaller. Treatment with rifampin and streptomycin for 4 weeks or more inhibited growth of M. ulcerans in human tissue, and it provides a basis for proceeding to a trial of antibiotic therapy as an alternative to surgery for early M. ulcerans disease.

Efficacy of two intervals and two routes of administration of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy: a randomised controlled equivalence trial
Tuyet, Hoang Thi Diem; von Hertzen, Helena; Shah, Rashmi; Peregoudov, Alexandre; Piaggio, Gilda; Khomassuridze, Archil; Arustamyan, Karine; Mittal, Suneeta; Nair, Rajasekharan; Huong, Nguyen Thi My; Cabezas, Evelio; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Vy, Nguyen Duc; Huong, To Minh; Erdenetungalag, Radnaabazar; Gomez, Manuel ( 2007-06-01 )

BACKGROUND: The most effective route and best interval between several doses of misoprostol to induce abortion have not been defined. Our aim was to assess the effects of the interval between multiple doses of misoprostol and the route of administration to terminate pregnancy. METHODS: 2066 healthy pregnant women requesting medical abortion with 63 days or less of gestation were randomly assigned within 11 gynaecological centres in six countries to the four treatment groups (three doses of 0.8 mg misoprostol given sublingually at 3-h intervals, vaginally 3 h, sublingually 12 h, and vaginally 12 h), stratifying by gestational age. This was an equivalence trial with a 5% margin of equivalence. The primary endpoints were efficacy of treatment to achieve complete abortion and to terminate pregnancy. The main efficacy analysis excluded women lost to follow-up. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN10531821. FINDINGS: Efficacy outcomes were analysed for 2046 women (99%), excluding 20 lost to follow-up. Complete abortion rates at 2-week follow-up were recorded for 431 (84%) in the sublingual and for 434 (85%) women in the vaginal group when misoprostol was given at 3-h intervals (difference 0.4%, 95% CI -4.0 to 4.9, p=0.85 equivalence shown), and for 399 (78%) in the sublingual and for 425 (83%) in the vaginal 12-h groups (4.6%, -0.2 to 9.5, p=0.06, equivalence not shown). In the 3-h groups, pregnancy continued in 29 (6%) women after sublingual and in 20 (4%) women after vaginal administration (difference 1.8%, 95% CI -0.8 to 4.4, p=0.19, equivalence shown); in the 12-h groups it continued in 47 (9%) after sublingual and in 25 (5%) after vaginal administration (4.4%, 1.2-7.5, p=0.01, vaginal better than sublingual). Differences for complete abortion between intervals for sublingual and vaginal routes were 6% (95% CI 1.0-10.6, p=0.02, 3 h better than 12 h) and 2% (-2.9 to 6.1, p=0.49, equivalence not shown), respectively; for continuing pregnancies they were 4% (0.4-6.8, p=0.03, 3 h better than 12 h) and 1% (-1.5 to 3.5, p=0.44, equivalence shown), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Administration interval can be chosen between 3 h and 12 h when misoprostol is given vaginally. If administration is sublingual, the intervals between misoprostol doses need to be short, but side-effects are then increased. With 12-h intervals, vaginal route should be used, whereas with 3-h intervals either route could be chosen.

Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in southwestern China / H. H. Yang ... [et al.]
Yang, H. H; Wu, C. G; Xie, G. Z; Gu, Q. W; Wang, B. R; Wang, L. Y; Wang, H. F; Ding, Z. S; Yang, Y; Tan, W. S; Wang, W. Y; Wang, X. C; Qin, M; Wang, J. H; Tang, H. A; Jiang, X. M; Li, Y. H; Wang, M. L; Zhang, M. L; Li, G. L ( 2001 )
Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Chowdhury, Rajib; Ghosh, Debashis; Mondal, Dinesh; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Das, Pradeep; Matlashewski, Greg; Kumar, Vijay; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Murari Lal; Priyanka, Jyoti; Huda, M Mamun ( 2016-08-17 )

We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent.This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45-50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention.Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23-0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51-0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62-0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86-1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76-1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26-1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching.DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub-continent should consider DWL and ITN for sand fly control in addition to IRS.

Efficiency and effectiveness of aid flows towards health workforce development: exploratory study based on four case studies from Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Liberia and Mozambique / by Mark Wheeler [ al]
Wheeler, M; Gedik, F. Gülin; Dal Poz, Mario R; World Health Organization ( 2011 )
The efficiency of TB laboratory services in the Russian Federation
World Health Organization. Cost-effectiveness of TB in the Russian Federation Project ( 2005 )
Efficiency of EPI cluster sampling for assessing diarrhoea and dysentery prevalence / S. S. Yoon ... [et al.]
Yoon, S. S; West, Keith P; Brendel, Karl A; Katz, J ( 1997 )
Efficiency of leprosy control programmes [letter] / Melake Berhan Dagnew
Dagnew, Melake Berhan ( 1989 )
The Efficiency of sporozoite transmission in the human malarias, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax / T. R. Burkot ... [et al.]
Burkot, T. R; Graves, P. M; Cattan, J. A; Wirtz, R. A; Gibson, F. D ( 1987 )
The efficiency of the WHO TB control strategy in the Russian Federation : the case of Orel Oblast
World Health Organization. Cost-effectiveness of TB in the Russian Federation Project ( 2005 )
Efficiency plan for the financial period 1998-1999
Executive Board, 101 ( 1998 )
Efficiency savings 2000-2001
Executive Board, 110 ( 2002 )
Efficiency savings, 2000-2001, and management reviews
Executive Board, 107 ( 2001 )
Efficient equity-oriented strategies for health : round table discussion / Göran Dahlgren
Dahlgren, Göran ( 2000 )
Efficient, quality-assured data capture in operational research through innovative use of open-access technology
Wilson, N; Kumar, A M V; Rieder, H L; Bhat, P; Lauritsen, J M; Sreenivas, A N; Naik, B; Guddemane, D K ( 2013-03-01 )

Ensuring quality of data during electronic data capture has been one of the most neglected components of operational research. Multicentre studies are also challenged with issues about logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. Allocating resources to these issues can pose a significant bottleneck for operational research in resource-limited settings. In this article, we describe an innovative and efficient way of coordinating data capture in multicentre operational research using a combination of three open access technologies-EpiData for data capture, Dropbox for sharing files and TeamViewer for providing remote support.

Effort and achievement in national family planning programmes / John A. Ross & W. Parker Mauldin
Ross, John A; Mauldin, W. Parker ( 1994 )
L' effort en soi est dèjà plus que justifié : table ronde / Michel F. Lechat
Lechat, Michel F ( 1996 )
The effort itself is already more than justified : discussion
Lechat, Michel F ( 1996 )
An effort of will
Gunaratne, V. T. Herat ( 1980-05 )
Showing results 47930 to 47949 of 210842 < previous   next >