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Showing results 16756 to 16775 of 204047 < previous   next >
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Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh / Martin Adjuik ... [et al.]
Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred ( 2006 )
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Causes and anatomical site of blindness and severe visual loss in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran
Dehghan, A.; Kianersi, F.; Moazam, E.; Ghanbari, H. ( 2010 )
Abstract

This study in 2005 evaluated the causes and major anatomical site of blindness and severe visual loss at a school for blind children in Isfahan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. All 211 students were examined according to the modified WHO/PBL eye examination record: 70.4% were blind, 24.3% had severe visual loss and 5.3% were visually impaired. The major causes of abnormality were hereditary factors [42.7%], prenatal/ neonatal [18.5%] and unknown etiology [35.5%]. The main sites of abnormality were the retina [62.6%], whole globe [17.5%], lens [7.1%] and optic nerve [7.1%]. A high proportion of parents were in a consanguineous marriage [49.2%]. The pattern of blindness in Isfahan encompasses characteristics of both developed and developing countries

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Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation: evidence from 60 demographic and health surveys
Ali, Mohamed M; Cleland, John G; Shah, Iqbal H; World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Les Causes de la mortalité maternelle dans une communauté semi-urbaine du Nigéria / Jasper Chiwuzie ... [et al.]
Chiwuzie, Jasper; Braimoh, Suleiman; Unuigbe, Jacob; Olumeko, Patience ( 1995 )
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Causes of blindness and needs of the blind in Mansoura, Egypt
El Gilany, A.H.; El Fedawy, S.; Tharwat, M. ( 2002 )
Abstract

A study of 113 blind people in Mansoura, Egypt highlighted the causes and risk factors for blindness, and health and social care needs of the blind. In two-thirds of cases, blindness occurred before 10 years of age. Risk factors for blindness were reported by more than half the study population. Congenital causes accounted for almost half the cases. The commonest causes of bilateral blindness were corneal opacities, cataract and glaucoma. Almost three-quarters of causes were avoidable. Health and social care for this group was inadequate and more than half would benefit from further management. Legislation for keratoplasty, a registry of blind people, and a nationwide community survey on the epidemiology of blindness are needed urgently

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Causes of blindness in people aged 50 years and over: community-based versus hospital-based study
Al Akily, S.A.; Bamashmus, M.A.; Al Mohammadi, K.A. ( 2010 )
Abstract

The causes of blindness in Yemen were determined in people aged 50+ years in both a communityand hospital-based study and documented using WHO/PBL criteria. In the community sample of 707 individuals in a rural area of Taiz governorate the prevalence of bilateral blindness was 7.9% and the main causes were cataract [71.4%] and age-related macular degeneration [ARMD] [14.3%]. Corneal opacities and uncorrected aphakia were rare [1 case each] and there were no cases of diabetic retinopathy. Unilateral blindness was found in 8.6% of the community sample. In a case-notes review of 1320 new patients attending an eye clinic in Sana'a, bilateral blindness was documented in 26.5% and unilateral blindness in 9.0% [main causes: cataract, glaucoma, ARMD, diabetic retinopathy, corneal opacities and trauma

Causes of child death: comparison of MCEE and GBD 2013 estimates
Liu, Li; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E; Mathers, Colin; Hogan, Daniel R; Cousens, Simon ( 2015-06-01 )
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Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh : results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study / A. H. Baqui ... [et al.]
Baqui, A. H; Black, R. E; Arifeen, S. E; Hill, K; Mitra, S. N; Al Sabir, A ( 1998 )
Causes of death : an assessment of global patterns of mortality around 1985 / Alan D. Lopez
Lopez, Alan D ( 1990 )
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Causes of death among Syrian children using verbal autopsy
Abou Rashid, N.; Al Jirf, S.; Bashour, H. ( 1996 )
Abstract

The causes of death in children under five years were studied using a structured verbal autopsy questionnaire. Possible determinants of death were also investigated. About 44% of deaths were among neonates [below 28 days of age]; the major causes of death in neonates were prematurity [33%] and birth-related factors [30%]. In infants [1-11 months of age], the leading cause of death was congenital malformations [24%]. Accidents were responsible for one-third of deaths in children aged 1-4 years. Factors that might have contributed to death were investigated. The public health importance of causes of death was evaluated and its implications were discussed

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Causes of death in diarrhoeal diseases after rehydration therapy : an autopsy study of 140 patients in Bangladesh / T. Butler ... [et al.]
Butler, T; Azad, A. K; Islam, M. R; Speelman, P ( 1987 )
Causes of death in the newly independent states of the former USSR = Causes de décès dans les Etats nouvellement indépendents de l' ex-URSS
( 1996 )
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[Causes of death in Tunisia: estimates of years of life lost]
Ben Mansour, N.; Skhiri, H.; Aounallah Skhiri, H.; Hsairi, M.; Hajjem, S. ( 2014 )
Abstract

This study estimated the number of years of life lost [YLL]by cause due to premature death in Tunisia for the year 2006.We adopted the methodology [SEYLL]proposed by Murray and Lopez.The crude rate of YLL was 58.1 per 1000 inhabitants.After age-standardization using the world population, we obtained a rate of 57.7 YLL per 1000.Cardiovascular diseases [CVD][19.3% of total YLL]and cancers [17.8%]dominated the burden of premature mortality, followed by perinatal conditions [13.6%]. Excluding extreme age groups where perinatal conditions [0-4 years]and CVD [>60 years]dominated the YLL's causes, injuries [road traffic crashes, falls, etc.] and cancers were most responsible for YLL.The present study highlights the major contribution of noncommunicable diseases to YLL in Tunisia.The promotion of healthy lifestyle and the reinforcement of secondary prevention in primary health care are the best ways to tackle these diseases

قام الباحثون في هذه الدراسة بتقدير عدد سنوات الحياة المفقودة نتيجة الموت المبكر، موزعة حسب أسباب الوفيات في تونس في عام 2006 . وقد اتبع الباحثون الطريقة المعيارية لحساب سنوات الحياة المتوقع فقدانها وهي الطريقة التي ابتكرها موري ولوبيز. ووجدوا أن المعدل الخام لسنوات الحياة المفقودة هو 58.1 لكل ألف نسمة، وبعد إضفاء المعيارية بالنسبة للسن بالاعتماد على عدد سكان العالم، حصل الباحثون على معدل 57.7 لسنوات الحياة المفقودة لكل ألف نسمة. وقد غلبت على عبء الوفيات المبكرة كل من أمراض القلب والأوعية [19.3 % من مجمل سنوات الحياة المفقودة]والسرطانات [17.8 %]، وتلاهما وفيات حالات الخداج والحالات المحيطة بالولادة [13.6 %]. وعندما استبعد الباحثون المجموعات العمرية القاصية التي تغلب فيها الحالات المحيطة بالولادة [0 - 4 سنوات]والأمراض القلبية الوعائية [في الأعمار أكثر من 60 عاما]، وجدوا أن الأسباب الغالبة لسنوات الحياة المفقودة هي الإصابات [حوادث التصادم على الطرق والسقوط وغير ذلك]، والسرطانات، فهي الأكثر مسؤولية عن سنوات الحياة المفقودة. وتوضح هذه الدراسة الإسهام الكبير للأمراض غير السارية في سنوات الحياة المفقودة في تونس. ولعل أفضل الطرق للتصدي لهذه الأمراض هي تعزيز الحياة الصحية وتعزيز الوقاية الثانوية في الرعاية الصحية الأولية

Cette étude présente une estimation des années de vie perdues [AVP]du fait d'un décès prématuré, par cause, en Tunisie pour l'année 2006.Nous avons adopté la méthodologie SEYLL [Standard Expected Years of Life Lost]proposée par Murray et Lopez.Le taux brut d'AVP était de 58, 1 pour 1000 habitants; celui standardisé sur la population mondiale était de 57, 7 pour 1000.Les maladies cardio-vasculaires [19, 3 %]et les cancers [17, 8 %]étaient les plus pourvoyeurs d'AVP, suivis par les affections périnatales [13, 6 %]. En dehors des classes d'âge extrêmes prédominées par les affections périnatales [0-4 ans]et les maladies cardio-vasculaires [>60 ans], c'étaient les cancers et les traumatismes [accidents de la circulation, chutes, etc.] qui étaient les plus pout-voyeurs d'AVP.L'étude souligne la part majeure des maladies non transmissibles dans les pertes en années de vie en Tunisie.La promotion d'un mode de vie sain et la prévention secondaire en première ligne semblent les moyens de lutte les plus efficaces contre ces maladies

Causes of death in Vanuatu
Tovu, Viran; Lopez, Alan D; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Rao, Chalapati; Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Harrison, Griffith; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Buttsworth, Michael ( 2016-03-15 )
Abstract

The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death.Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths.National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult males and 60 % in females. Injuries accounted for 13 % in adult males and 6 % in females. Maternal deaths translate into an annual maternal mortality ratio of 130/100,000 for the period.Vanuatu manifests a double burden of disease with significant proportional mortality from perinatal disorders and infection/pneumonia <5 years and maternal mortality, coupled with significant proportional mortality in adults (15-59 years) from cardiovascular disease (CVD), neoplasms, and diabetes.

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[Causes of drinking-water contamination in rain-fed cisterns in three villages in Ramallah and Al-Bireh District, Palestine]
Al Khatib, Issam A.; Orabi, Moammar ( 2004 )
Abstract

We studied the biological characteristics of drinking-water in three villages in Ramallah and al-Bireh district, by testing the total coliforms. Water samples were collected from rain-fed cisterns between October and November 2001. The results show that 87% of tested samples of drinking-water were highly contaminated and in need of coagulation, filtration and disinfection based on the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water, and 10.5% had low contamination and were in need of treatment by disinfection only. Only 2.5% of the tested samples were not contaminated and were suitable for drinking without treatment. The main cause of drinking-water contamination was the presence of cesspits, wastewater and solid waste dumping sites near the cisterns

Causes of hospital admission among people living with HIV worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mills, Edward J; Davies, Mary-Ann; Eholie, Serge; Ajose, Olawale; Vitoria, Marco; Penazzato, Martina; Frigati, Lisa; Meintjes, Graeme; Shubber, Zara; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ford, Nathan; Ellman, Tom; O'Brien, Daniel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Doherty, Meg; Calmy, Alexandra ( 2015-08-11 )
Abstract

Morbidity associated with HIV infection is poorly characterised, so we aimed to investigate the contribution of different comorbidities to hospital admission and in-hospital mortality in adults and children living with HIV worldwide.Using a broad search strategy combining terms for hospital admission and HIV infection, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, AIM, IMEMR and WPIMR from inception to Jan 31, 2015, to identify studies reporting cause of hospital admission in people living with HIV. We focused on data reported after 2007, the period in which access to antiretroviral therapy started to become widespread. We estimated pooled proportions of hospital admissions and deaths per disease category by use of random-effects models. We stratified data by geographical region and age.We obtained data from 106 cohorts, with reported causes of hospital admission for 313 006 adults and 6182 children living with HIV. For adults, AIDS-related illnesses (25 119 patients, 46%, 95% CI 40-53) and bacterial infections (14 034 patients, 31%, 20-42) were the leading causes of hospital admission. These two categories were the most common causes of hospital admission for adults in all geographical regions and the most common causes of mortality. Common region-specific causes of hospital admission included malnutrition and wasting, parasitic infections, and haematological disorders in the Africa region; respiratory disease, psychiatric disorders, renal disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and liver disease in Europe; haematological disorders in North America; and respiratory, neurological, digestive and liver-related conditions, viral infections, and drug toxicity in South and Central America. For children, AIDS-related illnesses (783 patients, 27%, 95% CI 19-34) and bacterial infections (1190 patients, 41%, 26-56) were the leading causes of hospital admission, followed by malnutrition and wasting, haematological disorders, and, in the African region, malaria. Mortality in individuals admitted to hospital was 20% (95% CI 18-23, 12 902 deaths) for adults and 14% (10-19, 643 deaths) for children.This review shows the importance of prompt HIV diagnosis and treatment, and the need to reinforce existing recommendations to provide chemoprophylaxis and vaccination against major preventable infectious diseases to people living with HIV to reduce serious AIDS and non-AIDS morbidity.None.

Causes of international increases in older age life expectancy
Tobias, Martin I; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A; White, Richard A; Boerma, Ties ( 2014-11-06 )
Abstract

In high-income countries, life expectancy at age 60 years has increased in recent decades. Falling tobacco use (for men only) and cardiovascular disease mortality (for both men and women) are the main factors contributing to this rise. In high-income countries, avoidable male mortality has fallen since 1980 because of decreases in avoidable cardiovascular deaths. For men in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, and central Asia, and for women in all regions, avoidable mortality has changed little or increased since 1980. As yet, no evidence exists that the rate of improvement in older age mortality (60 years and older) is slowing down or that older age deaths are being compressed into a narrow age band as they approach a hypothesised upper limit to longevity.

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Causes of low tetanus toxoid vaccination coverage in pregnant women in Lahore district, Pakistan
Hasnain, S.; Sheikh, N.H. ( 2007 )
Abstract

To assess the causes of low tetanus toxoid [TT] vaccination coverage in pregnant women a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted at the community, primary health care delivery and management levels in Lahore district, Pakistan. Out of a random sample of 362 women who had delivered during the previous 3 months, 87% recalled receiving 2 doses of TT. The main reasons for non-vaccination were poor knowledge about the importance of TT [32% of women] or the place and time to get vaccinated [18%]. According to the managers and primary health care medical officers, the main reasons for low coverage were lack of awareness about the importance of vaccination among the public and misconceptions about TT vaccination [e.g. that it was a contraceptive]

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Causes of maternal mortality in a semi-urban Nigerian setting / Jasper Chiwuzie ... [et al.]
Chiwuzie, Jasper; Braimoh, Suleiman; Unuigbe, Jacob; Olumeko, Patience ( 1995 )
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Causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh, 1976-85 / V. Fauveau ... [et al.]
Fauveau, Vincent; Koenig, M. A; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy; Chowdhury, A. I ( 1988 )
Showing results 16756 to 16775 of 204047 < previous   next >