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14th meeting of the European Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (ETAGE).pdf.jpg
14th meeting of the European Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (ETAGE)
( 2014 )

The European Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (ETAGE) met on 8–9 October 2014 to review and discuss immunization activities and developments in the WHO European Region and provide advice to the WHO Regional Office on appropriate activities. Main topics for discussion included the measles and rubella action plan and progress made in achieving the regional elimination goal; monitoring implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) and development of the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015–2020 (EVAP); defining a regional goal for hepatitis B control; an update on the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) Pertussis Working Group activities; and updates on Vaccine Safety Communication, Advocacy initiatives, IPV introduction as part of the polio endgame strategy, and National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) strategic activities.

Advances in viral hepatitis : report of the WHO Expert Committee on Viral Hepatitis [meeting held in Geneva from 11 to 16 October 1976]
WHO Expert Committee on Viral Hepatitis; World Health Organization ( 1977 )
Annex 1. PICO questions
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 2. outcome frameworks
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 3. GRADE notation and language
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 4. GRADE evidence profiles
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 5. decision tables
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 6. evidence summaries
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 7. search strategies
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 8. values and preferences report
World Health Organization ( 2012 )
Annex 9: summary of declarations of interest
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
Appendix 2: systematic review reports and evidence summaries
World Health Organization ( 2015 )
APPENDIX: Modelling the impact of early antiretroviral therapy for adults coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B or C in South Africa
World Health Organization ( 2013 )
Case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acute hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt
Talaat, M.; Radwan, E.; El Sayed, N.; Ismael, T.; Hajjeh, R.; Mahoney, F.J. ( 2010 )

Hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection is a significant health problem in Egypt. To better define risk factors associated with HBV transmission, we conducted a case-control study among patients admitted with acute hepatitis to an infectious disease hospital in Cairo. A total of 60 cases and 120 controls were interviewed about various exposures within 6 months prior to admission. Univariate analysis revealed HBV case-patients were more likely to report providing injections to relatives or friends, injecting drug use, exposure to a household contact with hepatitis, exposure to invasive medical procedures and being in the military. Efforts should be made to implement strict infection control standards in Egypt

Cellular immune response in acute hepatitis B leading to chronic carrier state
Morsi, M.G.; Zaki, S.A.; Kamal, M.K.; Sadaka, S.A.; El Shimy, Y.M. ( 1997 )

Immunological studies among jaundiced patients revealed significant changes in T-helper and T-suppressor cells among chronic HBV cases from the acute and control groups. The chronic cases revealed a highly significant decrease in interleukin-2R expression but their low interferon-gamma values were statistically nonsignificant from the control group. The acute cases recorded the highest interleukin-2R and interferon-gamma values. Lymphocyte blastogenesis assay in response to different mitogens and antigens produced two groups: responders [acute cases] and nonresponders [chronic cases]. The responders revealed more intact specific and nonspecific cellular immune responses. Neither group differed with regard to their proliferative response to HBsAg, but vigorous response to HBcAg was a significant feature of the responders

Consultation on hepatitis B as a sexually transmitted disease : report of a WHO consultation, Geneva, 28-30 November 1990
World Health Organization. Microbiology and Immunology Support Services Unit; World Health Organization. Programme of Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( 1991 )
Consultation on Measles Elimination and Hepatitis B Control, Manila, Philippines, 17-20 April 2012 : report
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific ( 2012 )
The cost of unsafe injections / M. A. Miller and E. Pisani
Miller, M. A; Pisani, E ( 1999 )
Cost-benefit analysis of a nationwide inoculation programme against viral hepatitis B in an area of intermediate endemicity / G. M. Ginsberg, S. Berger, & D. Shouval
Ginsberg, G. M; Berger, S; Shouval, D ( 1992 )
The cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injection in healthcare settings / Gerald Dziekan ... [et al.]
Dziekan, Gerald; Chisholm, Daniel; Johns, Benjamin; Rovira, Juan; Hutin, Yvan J. F ( 2003 )
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