Browsing by Subject Environmental Pollutants

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1,1,1-Trichloroethane
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon widely used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal and as a solvent in many industrial and consumer products. The abuse of this solvent has resulted in a large number of fatalities. A review of data on the environmental behaviour of 1,1,1-trichloroethane documents its ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere, its rapid transport to the troposphere, its long residence time, its depletion of ozone, and its contribution to global warming. Leaching into ground water and deep aquifers occurs and persistent contamination has been documented. While contamination of the atmosphere is judged to be the most important route of exposure for the general population, the report notes that indoor air may cause considerably higher exposures due to the use of numerous consumer products containing this solvent. Air is also noted to be the main source of exposure at the workplace. An evaluation of effects on humans draws upon studies of occupationally exposed workers and cases of fatal exposure following accidents and intentional abuse. Both acute and long-term inhalation exposures are noted to affect the central nervous system, with signs ranging from slight behavioural changes to unconsciousness. Exposure may also cause damage to the heart and liver. A review of accidents at the workplace underscores the especially dangerous conditions in poorly ventilated areas and confined spaces, such as tanks and vaults, caused by the compounds greater density than air. The final section evaluates effects on organisms in the field, concluding that environmental conamination is unlikely to pose a significant hazard for environmental organisms. Because of its many other hazards, including its ozone-depleting potential, the report recommends that the release of 1,1,1-trichloroethane be reduced to the greatest extent possible

Aldicarb / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization ; first draft prepared by J. Risher and H. Choudhury
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
Abstract

Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by aldicarb, a carbamate insecticide applied, exclusively in granular form and below the soil surface, to control certain insects, mites, and nematodes. Aldicarb has been approved for use on a wide range of crops; ingestion of contaminated food is the main route of exposure for the general population. Because aldicarb is applied to the subsoil, the evaluation of environmental fate concentrates on mobility and persistence in soil and on the circumstances under which aldicarb may contaminate shallow wells. The rapid uptake of aldicarb and its residues by food crops is another consistently reported finding. Studies in experimental animals point to the efficient absorption of aldicarb from the gastrointestinal tract and its wide distribution to all tissues, including the developing fetus. Concerning risks to human health, the book draws on reports of several widespread outbreaks of aldicarb poisoning following the ingestion of contaminated cucumbers, melons, watermelons, and drinking water. In each of these cases, poisoning resulted from the use of aldicarb on a non-approved crop. The book concludes that aldicarb is one of the most potent and acutely toxic pesticides in use, that most cases of poisoning and toxicity arise from the use of aldicarb on non-approved crops or the failure to follow recommended safety precautions, that the symptoms of poisoning are transient and rarely fatal, and that aldicarb poses no risk to the general population when applied at recommended rates and using current techniques. The need to use protective equipment during manufacture, formulation, and application is stressed

Alpha- and beta- hexachlorocyclohexanes / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). These two isomers are by-products in the manufacturing of lindane, and may be present in this pesticide as impurities. Alpha- and beta-HCH are also present in technical-grade HCH, which is used in agriculture and wood protection. Most environmental releases are linked to the use of technical-grade HCH and to the inappropriate disposal of residues produced when lindane is purified. Alpha- and beta-HCH are evaluated in separate monographs, which cover sources of human and environmental exposure, levels detected in different environmental media, behaviour in the environment, metabolic fate in different organisms, and toxic effects on experimental animals, humans, and plant and animal species. Both isomers are noted to be universal environmental contaminants, with concentrations detected in samples of air, rain water, fresh water, sea water, soil, sediment, and numerous plant and animal species, as well as in several important food items. A review of studies on environmental behaviour and metabolic fate concludes that alpha- and beta-HCH, when compared with lindane, are characterized by a higher bioconcentration in the environment, a slower rate of biodegradation by ultraviolet light, and a slower rate of elimination from organisms. Concerning sources of human exposure, studies show that, in industrialized countries, more than 90% of human intake occurs through the consumption of contaminated food, with the highest concentrations found in fat-containing food items. Current exposures via food are judged to be low and gradually decreasing, supporting the conclusion that these isomers pose no serious health threat to the general public. A review of findings from toxicity studies in laboratory animals identifies growth retardation and effects on the liver and kidney as the major consequences of acute exposure. Although a neoplastic response was observed in some studies, the report concludes that this response is most likely due to a non-genotoxic mechanism. In its concluding section, the report expresses serious concern over the widespread pollution of the environment with these isomers. As neither has any insecticidal action, the report concludes that use of technical-grade HCH products containing high concentrations of alpha- and beta-HCH is never justified

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Approaches to hazardous wastes management : paper presented at WHO Regional Workshop on Chemical Safety, Kuala Lumpur, 24-28 November 1986 / prepared by G. Ozolins, R. Helmer and J. Smith
Ozolins, G; Helmer, Richard; Smith, J; World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit; WHO Regional Workshop on Chemical Safety (1986 : Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) ( 1987 )
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Assessment of sources of air, water, and land pollution : a guide to rapid source inventory techniques and their use in formulating environmental control strategies / by Alexander P. Economopoulos
Economopoulos, Alexander P; World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit ( 1993 )
Beryllium / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by the use of beryllium, a brittle metal having major applications in the electronics and micro-electronics industries, in nuclear energy, and in the production of military devices, including satellites, missiles, atomic bombs, and other weapons. Beryllium has also proved its superiority as a structural material for aircraft and spacecraft. An evaluation of sources of exposure cites the combustion of fossil fuels as the most important source of atmospheric beryllium, with coal singled out as the main pollutant source. Concerning sources of human exposure, the report notes that toxicologically relevant exposure is almost exclusively confined to the work-place. Only two applications pose a risk to the general population: mantle-type camping lanterns and the use of beryllium in dentistry.The most extensive section evaluates data from the large number of toxicological studies documenting the development of acute chemical pneumonitis and a highly species-specific induction of pulmonary cancer. An evaluation of effects on humans, which concentrates on occupational exposures, summarizes findings on the occurrence of both acute and chronic beryllium disease. The review also yields clinically useful information on exposure levels, characteristic signs and symptoms, and the most reliable diagnostic tests. In view of the controversy concerning the carcinogenicity of beryllium, particularly careful attention was given to several studies reporting a signifcantly elevated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Evidence was judged sufficient to confirm the role of beryllium in the development of human lung cancer. The report further concludes that the potential of beryllium to provoke contact allergic reactions, supported by several reports of allergic contact stomatitis in dental patients, calls for a reconsideration of the use of this metal in dentistry

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Biological activity resulting from exposure to aquatic environmental genotoxic pollutants in northern Egypt
Saad, A.A.; El Sikaily, A.M.; Kholeif, S.F.; Khalil, E.S.; Mahrous, H.S.; Al Zabedi, E.M.S.; Kassem, H.A. ( 2010 )
Abstract

We estimated pollution in Lake Edku and the Mediterranean Sea, El-Maadiya Region, with 3 aromatic amines [1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine and benzidine] in the muscle tissue of fish. There were marked seasonal variations in the aromatic amine levels. We also determined oxidative stress [blood glutathione, and catalase activity] and genotoxic effects [chromosomal aberrations and urinary metabolites] in fishermen from each area. The fishermen suffered from oxidative stress and had high levels of the urinary metabolite sulfanilamide [mean [microg/mg creatinine]: Lake Edku 20.7, Mediterranean 14.5, controls 5.3]. Frequencies for total chromosomal aberrations were significantly raised in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of fishermen in both areas [frequency [per 100 metaphases]: Mediterranean 67, Lake Edku 45, controls 14]

Cadmium / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
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Children's exposure to mercury compounds
World Health Organization ( 2010 )
Chlorobenzenes other than hexachlorobenzene / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to monochlorobenzene, dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, tetrachlorobenzenes, and pentachlorobenzene. These chemicals are produced in huge quantities for use as intermediates in the synthesis of pesticides and in the production of a wide range of consumer and commercial products. A review of data on sources of environmental exposure notes that release to the environment occurs primarily during manufacture and that incineration of chlorobenzenes may lead to the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Sections concerned with sources and levels of human exposure conclude that the general population is exposed to the lower chlorinated congeners mainly through inhalation, whereas a greater proportion of the total daily intake of the higher chlorinated compounds is ingested in food; breast-fed babies may receive a higher dose than members of the adult population. Particular concern centres on risks of human exposure arising from the ingestion of contaminated fish and from contaminated indoor air linked to use of these compounds as moth repellents and air fresheners. Because of weaknesses in available studies, the report was unable to predict the environmental impact of low-level contamination with chlorobenzenes, or to identify the mechanisms by which these compounds might enter the food chain. While ambient concentrations are expected to reach toxic levels only in the case of accidental spills or uncontrolled industrial discharge, the report notes the need to avoid discharge of chlorobenzenes into the aquatic environment, as this can result in the build up of persistent residues in sediment or ground water. The most extensive section reviews the large number of experimental studies that have evaluated short-term and long-term effects of exposure to these chemicals, including their carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic potential. Concerning risks to human health, findings from case reports in occupationally exposed populations point to transient effects on the central nervous system, and irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract as the principal health effects of exposure

A comparison of the direct and indirect methods of human exposure / D. Mage
Mage, David T ( 1991 )
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Conséquences pour la santé publique de l’exposition au mercure et aux composés du mercure : le rôle de l’OMS et des ministères de la santé publique dans la mise en oeuvre de la Convention de Minamata
Assemblée mondiale de la Santé, 67 ( 2014 )
Control of environmental hazards : assessment and management of environmental hazards, evaluations and recommendations by a working group, Geneva, 2-3 December 1987, 24-25 March 1988
World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit ( 1989 )
Deltamethrin / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by the use of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide mainly used against agricultural pests. Marketed since 1977, deltamethrin is most commonly used on cotton, on fruit and vegetable crops, and on cereals, corn, and soybean. Deltamethrin is also used for the post-harvest protection of stored cereals, grains, coffee beans, and dry beans. Major public health applications include use in the control of Chagas disease and malaria. Dietary residues, particularly following post-harvest treatment, are identified as the most important source of exposure for the general population. While deltamethrin has been shown to be highly toxic fo fish, aquatic arthropods, and honey bees in laboratory investigations, field studies and observations following widespread use indicate that this insecticide, when used according to good agricultural practice, is unlikely to have lasting effects on these species. The main part of the book examines investigations of the toxic effects of deltamethrin on experimental animals and in vitro test systems. The review found no evidence of mutagenicity, teratogenic or reproductive effects, though it did cite evidence that the combined use of deltamethrin with some organophosphorus compounds can potentiate toxicity. The final section evaluates effects on humans as observed following poisoning, occupational accidents, and both short- and long-term occupational exposure. The book concludes that exposure of the general population to deltamethrin is very low and that, provided recommended rates of application are followed, use of this insecticide is unlikely to present a hazard to either occupationally-exposed workers or the environment

Ecotoxicology and climate : with special reference to hot and cold climates / edited by Philippe Bourdeau ... [et al.]
Bourdeau, Philippe; Haines, J. A; Klein, Werner; Krishna Murti, C. R; International Council of Scientific Unions. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1989 )
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Effects of occupational health hazards on reproductive functions : report prepared by a WHO meeting, Geneva, 4-8 August 1986 / editors, M. A. El Batawi ... [et al.]
El Batawi, Mostafa A; Fomenko, V; Hemminki, K; Sorsa, Marja; Vergieva, T; World Health Organization. Office of Occupational Health ( 1987 )
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Emissions, environmental transport, and dose-response models : information for developing guidelines for case study teams, a workshop report for the joint IAEA/UNEP/WHO project on assessing and managing health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, June 29 - July 2, 1987 / prepared by the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Assessment of Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Systems
WHO Collaborating Centre for the Assessment of Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Systems; World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit; Inter-Agency Project on the Assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems ( 1988 )
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Environmental change and resulting impacts on health : report of a WHO expert committee [meeting held in Geneva from 11 to 17 August 1964]
WHO Expert Committee on Environmental Change and Resulting Impacts on Health; World Health Organization ( 1964 )
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Environmental health
Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 056 ( 2005 )
Global environment monitoring system, HEAL project : guidelines for integrated air, water, food and biological exposure monitoring / editor, H. W. de Koning
Koning, Henk W. de; World Health Organization. Prevention of Environmental Pollution Unit; Global Environment Monitoring System. Human Exposure Assessment Location Project ( 1986 )
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