Browsing by Subject Environmental Exposure

Jump to: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
or enter first few letters:  

Showing results 1 to 20 of 736  next >
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon widely used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal and as a solvent in many industrial and consumer products. The abuse of this solvent has resulted in a large number of fatalities. A review of data on the environmental behaviour of 1,1,1-trichloroethane documents its ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere, its rapid transport to the troposphere, its long residence time, its depletion of ozone, and its contribution to global warming. Leaching into ground water and deep aquifers occurs and persistent contamination has been documented. While contamination of the atmosphere is judged to be the most important route of exposure for the general population, the report notes that indoor air may cause considerably higher exposures due to the use of numerous consumer products containing this solvent. Air is also noted to be the main source of exposure at the workplace. An evaluation of effects on humans draws upon studies of occupationally exposed workers and cases of fatal exposure following accidents and intentional abuse. Both acute and long-term inhalation exposures are noted to affect the central nervous system, with signs ranging from slight behavioural changes to unconsciousness. Exposure may also cause damage to the heart and liver. A review of accidents at the workplace underscores the especially dangerous conditions in poorly ventilated areas and confined spaces, such as tanks and vaults, caused by the compounds greater density than air. The final section evaluates effects on organisms in the field, concluding that environmental conamination is unlikely to pose a significant hazard for environmental organisms. Because of its many other hazards, including its ozone-depleting potential, the report recommends that the release of 1,1,1-trichloroethane be reduced to the greatest extent possible

9241530030.pdf.jpg
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Hughes, K; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
9241530510.pdf.jpg
1,1-Dichloroethene (vinylidene chloride)
Benson, Bob; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
9241530561.pdf.jpg
1,2,3-Trichloropropane
Kielhorn, Janet; Konnecker, G; Pohlenz-Michel, Charles; Schmidt, S; Mangelsdorf, Inge; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
9241530154.pdf.jpg
1,2-Diaminoethane (Ethylenediamine)
Cary, Richard; Dobson, Stuart; Delic, J; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
1,2-Dibromoethane
Sekizawa, J; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1996 )
9241530014.pdf.jpg
1,2-Dichloroethane
Hughes, K; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
9241530308.pdf.jpg
1,3-Butadiene : human health aspects
Hughes, K; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2001 )
1-butanol : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
9241530235.pdf.jpg
2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
9241530669_eng.pdf.jpg
2,4,6-Tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols
Howe, Paul D; Dobson, Stuart; Malcolm, H. M; World Health Organization. Chemical Safety Team; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2005 )
2-butanol : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
9789241530743_eng.pdf.jpg
2-butenal
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 2008 )
9241530103_eng.pdf.jpg
2-Butoxyethanol
Wess, J; Ahlers, H; Dobson, Stuart; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
9241530219.pdf.jpg
2-Furaldehyde
Cary, R; Dobson, Stuart; Gregg, N; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
2-Nitropropane / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 2-nitropropane, an important industrial chemical used as a solvent for printing inks, paints, varnishes, adhesives, and other coatings, such as beverage container linings. 2-Nitropropane is also used in printing inks for flexible food packaging and in food processing, primarily for the separation of oleic acid from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Though smokers are regularly exposed to low concentrations, exposure of the general population from other sources is judged to be very low. The most extensive section evaluates data from studies conducted in laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Studies show moderate acute toxicity for mammals, with considerable variation in the sensitivity of different laboratory animals. Studies conducted in the rat provide clear evidence of destructive changes in the liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The report found no conclusive evidence that 2-nitropropane causes cancer in other laboratory species. Concerning effects on humans, the report notes that exposure to high concentrations, which are acutely toxic, is largely or entirely confined to the occupational setting. An evaluation of toxic effects draws upon seven reports of industrial fatalities attributed to inhalation of 2-nitropropane fumes, with death due to acute hepatic failure in all cases. Although more research on long-term effects is needed, the report notes that available data provide no indication that chronic occupational exposure at concentrations usually encountered in the workplace induces hepatic or other neoplasms, or other long-term effects. Because 2-nitropropane is a potent carcinogen in rats, the report recommends that occupational exposure to this solvent, and its presence in consumer products, be minimized and replaced with a less toxic solvent whenever practical. The report recommends against the use of 2-nitropropane in food processing

9241530022.pdf.jpg
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
Gomes, R; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
9241530480.pdf.jpg
4-Chloroaniline
Boehncke, A; Kielhorn, Janet; Konnecker, G; Pohlenz-Michel, Charles; Mangelsdorf, Inge; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
Acetaldehyde
Fouw, J. de; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1995 )
Acetaldehyde : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1994 )
Showing results 1 to 20 of 736  next >