Browsing by Subject Diphtheria

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Antibiotic prophylaxis of diphtheria drafted by WHO/EURO/CDC/USAID/BASICS
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival Project ( 1996 )

The WHO/UNICEF Strategy for diphtheria control includes three main recommendations: mass immunization; early diagnosis and proper treatment of cases; management of close contacts by the use of antibiotics. Whereas the first two recommendations have been implemented in all NIS having epidemic diphtheria, in some countries there is a controversial discussion regarding the use of antibiotics for close contacts. Therefore WHO, with assistance of CDC and USAID/BASICS has drafted guidelines regarding the antibiotic prophylaxis of contacts of diphtheria cases based on international experience. The guidelines include reprints of publications demonstrating the success of this strategy

Assessing the impact of the Expanded Programme on Immunization : the example of Indonesia / R. Kim-Farley ... [et al.]
Kim-Farley, Robert J; Soewarso, Titi Indijati; Karyadi, Albertus; Adhyatma, M ( 1987 )
Les Bases immunologiques de la vaccination
Galazka, Artur M; Milstien, Julie B; Robertson, Susan E; Cutts, Felicity T; WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization ( 1993 )
The changing age structure of diphtheria patients : evidence for the effectiveness of EPI in the Sudan / B. P. Loevinsohn
Loevinsohn, B. P ( 1990 )
The Changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan / M. Khuri-Bulos ... [et al.]
Khuri-Bulos, M; Hamzah, Y; Sammerrai, S. M; Shehabi, A; Hamed, R; Arnaout, M. A; Turk, J; Qubain, H ( 1988 )
Comisión del programa y del presupuesto: acta resumida provisional de la décimo séptima sesión
Asamblea Mundial de la Salud, 10 ( 1957 )
World Health Organization. Office of Information ( 1995 )
Diphtheria and pertussis vaccination : report of a Conference of Heads of Laboratories Producing Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccines, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 13-18 October 1952
Conference of Heads of Laboratories Producing Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccines (1952: Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia); World Health Organization ( 1953 )
Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017
World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé ( 2017-08-04 )
Dynamics of acute bacterial diseases : epidemiological models and their application in public health / B. Cvjetanovic, B. Grab, K. Uemura
Cvjetanovic, Branko; Grab, B; Uemura, Kazuo; World Health Organization ( 1978 )
European Advisory Group on the Expanded Programme on Immunization : report on the 12th meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 21 November 1996
European Advisory Group on the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Meeting (12th: 1996: Copenhagen, Denmark); World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1997 )

At its twelfth meeting, the European Advisory Group (EAG) confirmed that the first priority for measles control was the achievement of high coverage with a single dose of vaccine, though this would not serve to eliminate the disease. The interruption of transmission needed to be maintained, and this could be achieved with supplementary vaccination, either through repeated campaigns or by the administration of second doses. Whichever approach was used, it was essential that the reaccumulation of susceptibles was prevented. The EAG endorsed the importance of achieving very high coverage of primary immunization with DTP vaccine. This should be completed before six months of age. The first booster could be given at 16-36 months of age, with another (DT) before school entry and a third (Td) on leaving school. This recommendation applied to all European countries. In a number of countries, especially those presently experiencing or having recently experienced epidemic diphtheria, a further booster should be given during the school years. Where the risk of diphtheria was considered high, periodic booster doses for adults would be necessary to prevent resurgence of the disease as immunity waned. On poliomyelitis, the EAG noted the significant impact of Operation MECACAR and the increasing awareness that remaining outbreaks of poliomyelitis in the Region had often followed importation of the disease. The EAG endorsed the plan of action for 1997 proposed by the Regional Office. In countries where poliomyelitis was still endemic or had become nonendemic within the past three years, the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) remained the recommended form of surveillance, especially for certification purposes. However, in countries where polioviruses had not been detected for many years, and AFP surveillance was not appropriate, other means of surveillance would need to be used. The EAG recommended that the Regional Office commission a position paper to review the options for laboratory-based or other surveillance techniques, so that appropriate guidelines could be issued

Evaluation of measures for poliomyelitis eradication and diphtheria control : report on a WHO meeting, Berlin, Germany 3-5 June 1996
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1996 )

A meeting to review the progress in poliomyelitis eradication and diphtheria control in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union was convened in Berlin, from 3 to 5 June 1996, by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, with financial support of the Government of Germany. The participants included representatives of 15 countries, WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), USAID, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDS) and BASICS. Reviewing the current state of poliomyelitis eradication it was considered that the current strategy has been very successful and it is expected to achieve eradication of wild poliovirus in the European Region by the year 2000. The immunization during Operation MECACAR in 1995 and 1996 and national immunization days (NID) in Russia in 1996 are an evidence for this success. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is improving, but is not yet sufficient to support the certification process in the Region. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for the control of diphtheria has proved to be effective. High coverage among the entire population, especially if rapidly achieved, quickly brings the disease under control. Despite clear signs of improved diphtheria control in many countries, diphtheria cases in general still occur at unacceptable levels. Strenuous efforts and continued fundraising is necessary to control epidemic diphtheria

Expanded Programme on Immunization : report on the sixth Meeting of National Programme Managers, Veyrier du Lac France, 23-26 October 1995
Meeting of National EPI Programme Managers (6th: 1995: Veyrier du Lac, France); World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1996 )

Previously controlled infectious diseases, notably diphtheria and poliomyelitis, are re-emerging in part of the WHO European Region. Epidemic control efforts have been only partially successful, and the Region is now falling behind some other WHO regions in the control of vaccine-preventable infections. The main aims of the Sixth Meeting of European National Programme Managers on the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) were to accelerate progress towards full implementation of national vaccine programmes and to review diphtheria and poliomyelitis control activities. Substantial progress towards poliomyelitis control has been made through Operation MECACAR. In contrast, the diphtheria epidemic in the NIS of the former USSR continues to grow; substantial efforts and resources are now required to bring it under control. Some countries are now implementing hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in the EPI schedule. The strengthening of surveillance systems for vaccine-preventable infections is a high priority for all countries

Expanded programme on immunization : report on the 11th meeting of the European Advisory Group, Paris, France 4-6 March 1996
European Advisory Group on the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization. Meeting (11th : 1996: Paris, France); World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1996 )

The 11th meeting of the European Advisory Group (EAG) was held in Paris from 4 to 6 March 1996. The EAG reviewed its role, function and membership and identified the following priorities: to review the progress and define the constraints of immunization programmes; to recommend approaches for strategies and modifications based on new scientific and practical findings; to advise the Regional office and the Interagency Immunization Coordinating Committee (IICC) on priority areas for action and on matters of special importance for submission to the Regional Committee. The EAG also examined opportunities for its recommendations to be made available widely

Expanded Programme on Immunization : report on the seventh WHO meeting of national programmes managers, Berlin 10-12 November 1997
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1998 )

The purposes of the Meeting were to introduce the European health for all policy for the twenty-first century, to discuss measles elimination, to advocate the strengthening of disease surveillance and development of laboratory networks, to present cost-benefit analysis models as tools for decision-makers, to discuss the systems of reporting on diseases covered by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and to present progress on poliomyelitis eradication/certification and diphtheria control. Essential components of a measles elimination plan for the WHO European Region were presented and the national programme managers endorsed the previous recommendation of the EPI European Advisory Group, that the elimination strategy, based on identification of susceptibility, was the most appropriate approach for the Region. Countries would need to categorize the control achieved through their current measles strategies, make appropriate analyses to estimate susceptibility and identify the appropriate way forward. The national programme managers agreed that continued efforts were needed to improve surveillance, especially for poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B and diphtheria. They acknowledged the progress towards poliomyelitis elimination, recognized the obstacles and reviewed the certification process

Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria / by R. Brooks
Brooks, R; World Health Organization. Health Laboratory Technology Unit ( 1981 )
Immunoglobulin standard preparations in replacement of hyperimmune animal sera : with special reference to anti-rabies, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibody preparations / by Jorn Lyng
Lyng, Jorn; World Health Organization. Biologicals Unit; WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (1985 : Geneva, Switzerland) ( 1985 )
The Immunological basis for immunization
Galazka, Artur M; Milstien, Julie B; Robertson, Susan E; Cutts, Felicity T; WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization ( 1993 )
Immunological basis for immunization : module 2: diphtheria - update 2009
World Health Organization ( 2009 )
Laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria / by Androulla Efstratiou and P. A. Christopher Maple
Efstratiou, Androulla; Maple, Christopher P.A; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ( 1994 )
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