Browsing by Author International Programme on Chemical Safety

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
Barker, P; Cary, Richard; Dobson, Stuart; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon widely used in the cleaning and degreasing of metal and as a solvent in many industrial and consumer products. The abuse of this solvent has resulted in a large number of fatalities. A review of data on the environmental behaviour of 1,1,1-trichloroethane documents its ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere, its rapid transport to the troposphere, its long residence time, its depletion of ozone, and its contribution to global warming. Leaching into ground water and deep aquifers occurs and persistent contamination has been documented. While contamination of the atmosphere is judged to be the most important route of exposure for the general population, the report notes that indoor air may cause considerably higher exposures due to the use of numerous consumer products containing this solvent. Air is also noted to be the main source of exposure at the workplace. An evaluation of effects on humans draws upon studies of occupationally exposed workers and cases of fatal exposure following accidents and intentional abuse. Both acute and long-term inhalation exposures are noted to affect the central nervous system, with signs ranging from slight behavioural changes to unconsciousness. Exposure may also cause damage to the heart and liver. A review of accidents at the workplace underscores the especially dangerous conditions in poorly ventilated areas and confined spaces, such as tanks and vaults, caused by the compounds greater density than air. The final section evaluates effects on organisms in the field, concluding that environmental conamination is unlikely to pose a significant hazard for environmental organisms. Because of its many other hazards, including its ozone-depleting potential, the report recommends that the release of 1,1,1-trichloroethane be reduced to the greatest extent possible

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1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Hughes, K; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
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1,1-Dichloroethene (vinylidene chloride)
Benson, Bob; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
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1,2,3-Trichloropropane
Kielhorn, Janet; Konnecker, G; Pohlenz-Michel, Charles; Schmidt, S; Mangelsdorf, Inge; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
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1,2-Diaminoethane (Ethylenediamine)
Cary, Richard; Dobson, Stuart; Delic, J; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1999 )
1,2-Dibromoethane
Sekizawa, J; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1996 )
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1,2-Dichloroethane
Hughes, K; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
1,2-Dichloroethane : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
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1,3-Butadiene : human health aspects
Hughes, K; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2001 )
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1,3-Dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and mixtures : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
1-butanol : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
1-Butanol : health and safety guide
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1987 )
1-Propanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by the production, use and waste disposal of 1-propanol, a colourless, highly flammable liquid used primarily as a multi-purpose solvent in industry and in the home. The compound, which has antiseptic as well as solvent properties, is also used in drugs and cosmetics. Because 1-propanol is primarily used as a volatile solvent, much of the production volume is eventually released into the environment. Sections considering behaviour in the environment and in organisms conclude that 1-propanol rapidly degrades in the environment, has a residence time of less than 3 days, and is rapidly metabolized and eliminated from the bodies of exposed organisms. Available data indicate that 1-propanol, at concentrations normally encountered in the enviornment, is not toxic for aquatic organisms, insects, or plants. In view of several inadequacies in experimental studies of toxicity, the report was unable to determine the human health risks associated with long-term exposure. Other data support the conclusion that 1-propanol is unlikely to pose a serious threat to either the general population or the environment under normal conditions of use

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2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
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2,4,6-Tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols
Howe, Paul D; Dobson, Stuart; Malcolm, H. M; World Health Organization. Chemical Safety Team; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2005 )
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ( 1984 )
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D : environmental aspects / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D: Environmental Aspects) ( 1989 )
Abstract

Appraises the risks to organisms and ecological systems posed by the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a selective herbicide which kills broad-leaved plants but not grasses or conifers. Evaluation is restricted to studies conducted at exposures that could be expected in the field. The opening sections underscore the importance of the physico-chemical properties and formulation of 2,4-D on its behaviour in environmental compartments. Against this background, separate sections are then devoted to the evaluation of risks to microorganisms, aquatic organisms, and terrestrial organisms. Numerous tables are used to summarize the large number of studies indicating toxicity to different species, no-observed-effect levels in different species, and variations in the toxicity of different formulations. The final section considers data on ecological effects from field applications. On the basis of the evidence reviewed, the book concludes that, when used under field conditions and at recommended rates, 2,4-D does not appear to produce direct toxic effects on any animal species

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1987 )
2-butanol : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
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