Browsing by Author International Programme on Chemical Safety

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2-Butanol : health and safety guide
International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization ( 1987 )
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2-butenal
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 2008 )
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2-Butoxyethanol
Wess, J; Ahlers, H; Dobson, Stuart; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
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2-Furaldehyde
Cary, R; Dobson, Stuart; Gregg, N; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2000 )
2-Methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol and their acetates / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to 2-meth-oxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their two acetates: 2-methoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate. These glycol ethers have a wide range of uses as solvents with particular application in paints, stains, inks, lacquers, and the production of food-contact plastics. Sections concerned with sources of exposure note that patterns of use as evaporative solvents result in significant, widespread emissions to the environment, with grea potential for direct human exposure in industry, in small work-shops, and during home use of numerous consumer products. A review of data on environmental behaviour points to rapid degradation, supporting the conclusions that the risk of hazardous environmental concentrations is small and that human exposure through food, water, or the ambient air is probably negligible. A review of experimental studies of toxicity reveals strong and consistent evidence, across all species investigated, of adverse effects on the male reproductive system, developmental toxicity, and haematological toxicity. Although studies in humans are scarce, results from case reports and workplace epidemiological studies confirm the findings from animal research, pointing to a clear risk of disturbances in the male reproductive system and of embryotoxicity. The book concludes with a series of recommendations to authorities, including the need to find less toxic solvents, to alert users to the hazards of these chemicals, and to be aware that air monitoring alone is not an adequate measure of safety conditions at the workplace

2-Nitropropane / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by 2-nitropropane, an important industrial chemical used as a solvent for printing inks, paints, varnishes, adhesives, and other coatings, such as beverage container linings. 2-Nitropropane is also used in printing inks for flexible food packaging and in food processing, primarily for the separation of oleic acid from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Though smokers are regularly exposed to low concentrations, exposure of the general population from other sources is judged to be very low. The most extensive section evaluates data from studies conducted in laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Studies show moderate acute toxicity for mammals, with considerable variation in the sensitivity of different laboratory animals. Studies conducted in the rat provide clear evidence of destructive changes in the liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The report found no conclusive evidence that 2-nitropropane causes cancer in other laboratory species. Concerning effects on humans, the report notes that exposure to high concentrations, which are acutely toxic, is largely or entirely confined to the occupational setting. An evaluation of toxic effects draws upon seven reports of industrial fatalities attributed to inhalation of 2-nitropropane fumes, with death due to acute hepatic failure in all cases. Although more research on long-term effects is needed, the report notes that available data provide no indication that chronic occupational exposure at concentrations usually encountered in the workplace induces hepatic or other neoplasms, or other long-term effects. Because 2-nitropropane is a potent carcinogen in rats, the report recommends that occupational exposure to this solvent, and its presence in consumer products, be minimized and replaced with a less toxic solvent whenever practical. The report recommends against the use of 2-nitropropane in food processing

2-Propanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1990 )
Abstract

A production process, thus reducing the health risks to exposed workers. Experimental studies of toxicity point to effects similar to those of acute ethanol intoxication. A review of sources of human exposure draws attention to reports of life-threatening intoxication following the sponging of febrile children with 2-propanol preparations. While noting the need for further studies of carcinogenic activity, the report concludes that 2-propanol is unlikely to pose a serious health risk for the general population under normal conditions of exposure

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3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
Gomes, R; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1998 )
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4-Chloroaniline
Boehncke, A; Kielhorn, Janet; Konnecker, G; Pohlenz-Michel, Charles; Mangelsdorf, Inge; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2003 )
Acetaldehyde
Fouw, J. de; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1995 )
Acetaldehyde : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1994 )
Acetone
Reisman, D. J; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ( 1998 )
Acetonitrile / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by acetonitrile, a by-product of acrylonitrile manufacture which is widely used as an extractive distillation solvent in the petrochemical industry and as a solvent for polymer spinning and casting. In laboratories, acetonitrile is widely used in high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis and as a solvent for DNA synthesis and peptide sequencing. These practical uses are identified as the major source of human exposure. Concerning the effects of acetonitrile on organisms in the environment, the report concludes that this chemical has low toxicity due to its rapid volatization and biodegradation. Studies of kinetics and metabolism indicate that acetonitrile is readily absorbed by all routes and rapidly distributed throughout the body, where it is converted to cyanide. A review of studies conducted in laboratory mammals concludes that acetonitrile induces toxic effects similar to those observed in acute cyanide poisoning, with prostration followed by seizures identified as the main symptoms. No animal studies on chronic or carcinogenic effects have been reported. In humans, studies of accidental poisoning in occupationally-exposed workers have identified the symptoms and signs of acute acetonitrile intoxication as chest pain, tightness in the chest, nausea, emesis, tachycardia, hypotension, short and shallow respiration, headache, restlessness, semiconsciousness, and seizures. In view of the hazards of poisoning, the report concludes that acetonitrile and mixtures containing this chemical should be clearly labelled with a warning about danger of poisoning

Acide (dichloro-2,4) phénoxy acétique (2,4-D) / publié sous la triple égide du Programme des Nations Unies pour l' Environnement, de l' Organisation internationale du Travail et de l' Organisation mondiale de la Santé
International Programme on Chemical Safety; United Nations Environment Programme; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ( 1984 )
Acido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
Acrole'ina : gu'ia para la salud y la seguridad
Pan American Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1993 )
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Acrolein
Gomes, R; Meek, M. E; World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 2002 )
Acrolein / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1992 )
Abstract

Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to acrolein, a chemical produced in large quantities and used as an intermediate in the synthesis of several chemicals, most notably acrylic acid and its esters and DL-methionine, an essential amino acid used as a feed supplement for poultry and cattle. Acrolein also has direct application as an aquatic biocide used against algae, molluscs, and herbs in recirculating process water systems, irrigation channels, cooling water towers, and water treatment ponds. Acrolein is estimated to account for 3 to 10% of total automobile exhaust aldehydes, 1 to 13% of total wood-smoke aldehydes, and up to 7% of the aldehydes in cigarette smoke. Concerning sources of human exposure, the report notes that exposure of the general population occurs mainly via air, with mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke representing the most importance source. Other sources of exposure include inhalation of air polluted by vehicle exhausts, direct contact with acrolein-treated water, and consumption of alcoholic beverages and certain food items. Concerning effects on the environment, the report cites studies documenting adverse effects on crops grown on soil irrigated by acrolein-treated water, and a very high toxicity for bacteria, algae, crustacea, and fish, with bacteria being the most sensitive species. Acrolein is noted to threaten aquatic life at or near sites of industrial discharge or spills and in areas where acrolein is used as a biocide. The most extensive section reviews the large number of studies of toxicological effects conducted in laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Studies support the conclusion that acrolein is acutely cytotoxic, produces teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, and is weakly mutagenic. Data on carcinogenicity were judged inadequate. In humans, case reports of accidental exposures and suicidal intoxication confirm the high toxicity of this chemical, which has its most significant effects on the eyes, nose, respiratory tract, and nervous system

Acrolein : health and safety guide
World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety ( 1991 )
Acrylamide
International Programme on Chemical Safety; International Labour Organization; United Nations Environment Programme; World Health Organization ( 1985 )
Abstract

Acrylamide, which is known to produce neurotoxic effects in man and many experimental animals, is a white, odourless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. Commercially produced since 1954, acrylamide and its derivatives are primarily used in the production of polymers and copolymers having a large market as flocculating agents in the treatment of sewage, wastewater, and drinking water. The ingestion of contaminated drinking water can pose an important health risk for man. This document utilizes well over 200 references to clarify current knowledge on the health consequences of exposure to acrylamide. Concern over neurotoxic effects is reflected in a detailed section in which conclusions are drawn on the basis of considerable animal research

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