Integrated vector management (IVM) is a rational decision-making process for
optimal use of resources for vector control. The aim of the IVM approach is to
contribute to achievement of the global targets set for vector-borne disease control, by
making vector control more efficient, cost-effective, ecologically sound and
sustainable. Use of IVM helps vector control programmes to find and use more local
evidence, to integrate interventions where appropriate and to collaborate within the
health sector and with other sectors, as well as with households and communities. By
reorientating to IVM, vector control programmes will be better able to meet the
growing challenges in the control of malaria, dengue and other vector-borne diseases
in the face of dwindling public sector human and financial resources.
This handbook presents an operational framework to guide managers and those
implementing vector-borne disease control programmes in designing more efficient,
cost-effective systems. As a national IVM policy and an intersectoral steering
committee are essential for establishing IVM as a national strategy, the handbook
begins with the policy and institutional framework for IVM. Policy analysis is a
means for identifying options for policy reform and suggesting instruments for
IVM transforms the conventional system of vector control by making it more
evidence-based, integrated and participative. This may require changes in roles,
responsibilities and organizational links. The transition to IVM involves both
reorientation of vector-borne disease control programmes and embedding IVM within
local health systems. Intersectoral partnerships and collaboration at both national and
local levels will result in cost savings and benefits to other health services. Other
relevant sectors, such as agriculture, environment, mining, industry, public works,
local government and housing, should incorporate IVM and vector control into their
own activities to prevent vector proliferation and disease transmission.
Planning and implementing IVM involve assessing the epidemiological and vector
situation at country level, analysing the local determinants of disease, identifying and
selecting vector control methods, assessing requirements and resources and designing
locally appropriate implementation strategies. Solid evidence on the cost-
effectiveness of interventions and their underlying parameters and a comprehensive
vector surveillance system are essential for locally appropriate decision-making.
Capacity-building, in particular human resource development, is a major challenge,
because the IVM strategy requires skilled staff and adequate infrastructure at central
and local levels. The handbook outlines the core functions and essential competence
required for IVM at central and local levels, complementing a separate set of
documents containing the Core structure for training curricula on integrated vector
management and associated training materials.
Like any new approach, IVM must be actively advocated and communicated in order
to become established. The handbook lays out the elements and processes of IVM to
enable policy-makers, donors and implementing partners to use it for vector-borne
disease control. During the period of transition and consolidation of an IVM strategy,
regular feedback is required on performance and impact in order to ensure continued
support. The general public must also be made aware of the strategy and participate in
its implementation. The communication tools for reaching the public are the media
and various types of educational interventions to increase their knowledge and skills,
which should lead to behavioural change and empowerment.
The final section presents a comprehensive framework for monitoring and evaluation
of IVM, covering aspects discussed in the previous sections. Indicators and methods
for measuring process, outcomes and impact are proposed.