ADOLESCENT HIV TESTING, COUNSELLING AND CARE
Implementation guidance for health providers and planners

Further reading

Introduction

Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) toolkit: K4Health eToolkit. Baltimore: Knowledge for Health (K4Health) Project; 2014.
(http://www.k4health.org/toolkits/alhiv, accessed 7 March 2014).

Interagency Youth Working Group. Research Triangle Park: FHI360; 2014.
(http://www.iywg.org/, accessed 7 March 2014).

HIV and young people. New York: Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Young People; 2013.
(http://www.youngpeopleandhiv.org/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

NAM aidsmap. London: NAM; 2014.
(http://www.aidsmap.com/, accessed 7 March 2014).

HIV and adolescents: Guidance for HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/adolescents/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and Facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Kasedde S et al. Reducing HIV and AIDS in adolescents: opportunities and challenges.
Current HIV/AIDS Report. 2013;10:159–168. Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2013.
(http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Opportunity in crisis: Preventing HIV from early adolescence to young adulthood. New York: UNICEF, UNAIDS, UNESCO, UNFPA, ILO, WHO and The World Bank; 2011.
(http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_58708.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Towards an AIDS-free generation: Children and AIDS Sixth stocktaking report, 2013. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2013.
(http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Children_and_AIDS_Sixth_Stocktaking_Report_EN.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (Journal of the International AIDS Society Special Issue). Geneva: International AIDS Society; 2013.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/pages/view/thematicadolescents, accessed 7 March 2014).


HIV Testing and Counselling

HIV counseling and testing for youth: A manual for providers and trainers. Durham: Family Health International; 2007.
(http://www.fhi360.org/resource/hiv-counseling-and-testing-youth-manual-providers-and-manual-trainers, accessed 7 March 2014).

ACTS (Advise, Consent, Test, Support). New York: Adolescent AIDS Program; 2008.
(http://www.adolescentaids.org/healthcare/acts.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

HIV testing of children (tools). Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council; 2012.
(http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/departments/hiv-aids-stis-and-tb/hiv-testing-of-children, accessed 7 March 2014).

Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: one-day training programme. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/vct/training_programme/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in health facilities. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.
(http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595568_eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Operational guidelines on HIV testing and counselling of infants, children and adolescents for service providers in the African region. Brazzaville: World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa; 2011.
(http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/dpc/acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome/features/2883-operational-guidelines-on-hiv-testing-and-counselling-of-infants-children-and-adolescents-for-service-providers-in-the-african-region.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Service delivery approaches to HIV testing and counselling (HTC): A strategic policy framework. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/vct/htc_framework/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

The voices, values and preference of adolescents on HIV testing and counselling: Consultation for the development of the World Health Organization HIV testing and counselling guidelines for adolescents. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute and World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/95143/1/WHO_HIV_2013.135_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 7 March 2014).

Maternal, neonatal, child and adolescent health survey 2009/2010: Adolescent health indicators global results. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011
(unpublished).

Adolescent consent to testing: a review of current policies and issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/95147/1/WHO_HIV_2013.141_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 7 March 2014).

Young people from key populations: Legal frameworks related to sexual and reproductive health and HIV in East and Southern Africa. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2013

National guidelines: HIV testing and counselling. Gaborone: Botswana Ministry of Health; 2009.
(http://www.gov.bw/Global/MOH/PC_MOH_01.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Denison J et al. Social relationships and adolescents’ HIV counselling and testing decisions in Zambia. New York: Population Council; 2006.
(http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/zambvctyth.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Ho WW et al. Complexities in HIV consent in adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics. 2005;44(6):473–478.
(http://cpj.sagepub.com/content/44/6/473.abstract, accessed 7 March 2014).

Ferrand RA et al. AIDS among older children and adolescents in Southern Africa: projecting the time course and magnitude of the epidemic. AIDS. 2009;23(15):2039–2046.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408596/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Ferrand RA et al. A primary care level algorithm for identifying HIV-infected adolescents in populations at high risk through mother-to-child transmission. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2011;16(3):349–355.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3132444/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Don’t forget the children: Guidance for the HIV testing of children with HIV-positive parents. London: British HIV Association, Children’s HIV Association, British Association for Sexual Health and HIV; 2009.
(http://www.bhiva.org/DontForgettheChildren.aspx, accessed 7 March 2014).

Planning, implementing and monitoring home-based HIV testing and counselling: A practical handbook for Sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva: Work Health Organisation; 2012.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/vct/home_based_care/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Comprehensive study on motivations and accessibility of VCT on HIV for children and youth. Kiev: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2013.
(http://www.unicef.org/ukraine/3_eng_compleksne_doslidzheniya_motivacii.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Testing times: A review of HIV counselling and testing within sports for development programmes for young people in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: Centre for AIDS Development, Research and Evaluation; 2012.
(http://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/review-of-hiv-counselling-and-testing-within-sport-for-development-programmes-040413/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Equitable access to HIV counseling and testing for youth in developing countries: A review of current practice. Washington DC: The Population Council; 2004.
(http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/vctythrvw.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Kranzer K et al. Quantifying and addressing losses along the continuum of care for people living with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012;15(2):17383.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/17383, accessed 7 March 2014).

Rosen S, Fox MP. Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Medicine. 2011;8(7):e1001056.
(http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001056, accessed 7 March 2014).

Wanyenze RK et al. Linkage to HIV care and survival following inpatient HIV counselling and testing. AIDS and Behavior. 2011;15:751–760.
(http://globalhealth.med.ucla.edu/publications/wanyenze.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Hatcher AM et al. Predictors of linkage to care following community-based HIV counseling and testing in rural Kenya. AIDS and Behavior. 2012;16(5):1295–1307.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22020756, accessed 7 March 2014).

Rosenberg NE et al. Assessing the effect of HIV counselling and testing on HIV acquisition among South African youth. AIDS. 2013;27(17):2765-73.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887069, accessed 7 March 2014).


Disclosure

It’s my right to know… and my right to tell: A guide on HIV disclosure for guardians, caregivers, parents, health workers, fieldworkers, social workers and project staff working with children living with HIV and AIDS in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: KHANA; 2013.

Disclosure process for children and adolescents living with HIV: Practical guide. Stellenbosch: South-to-South Program for Comprehensive Family HIV Care & Treatment; 2012.
(http://sun025.sun.ac.za/portal/page/portal/South_to_South/uploads/FXB%20DISCLOSURE%20PROCESS%20PRAC%20GUIDE.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Facilitating HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents in India. New Delhi: International HIV/AIDS Alliance; 2009.
(http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/document/Facilitating%20HIV%20Testing%20and%20Disclosure%20with%20children%20and%20adolescents.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Talking to children about their health and HIV Diagnosis. London: CHIVA UK; 2009.
(http://www.chiva.org.uk/files/guidelines/talking-to-children.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Pediatric HIV disclosure manual. Bangkok: Ministry of Public Health Thailand; 2010.
(http://www.cqihiv.com/Final_Pediatric_HIV_Eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Sharing in Life. Telling people in your life about HIV and having safe sexual relationships: A guide for people living with HIV in their teens and early childhood. London: Children’s HIV Association and National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/843054/sharing_in_life.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guideline on HIV disclosure counselling for children up to 12 years of age. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/hiv_disclosure/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

National guidelines on HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment [Thailand]. Bangkok: National AIDS Committee; 2010.

National guidelines for HIV testing and counselling in Kenya. Nairobi: National AIDS and STD Control Programme; 2008.
(http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_127533.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Uganda national policy guidelines for HIV counselling and testing. Kampala: Uganda Ministry of Health; 2005.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/uganda_art.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

HIV status disclosure to perinatally-infected adolescents in Zimbabwe: A qualitative study of adolescent and healthcare worker perspectives. PLOS One. 2014;9(1):e87322.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24475271, accessed 7 March 2014).

Vreeman RC et al. Disclosure of HIV status to children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;16:18466.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714198, accessed 7 March 2014).

Siu GE et al. HIV serostatus disclosure and lived experiences of adolescents at the Transition Clinic of the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Kampala, Uganda: a qualitative study. AIDS Care. 2012;24(5):606–11.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081975, accessed 7 March 2014).

Arrivé E et al. HIV status disclosure and retention in care in HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in West Africa. PLoS One. 2001;7(3):e33690.
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033690, accessed 7 March 2014).

On measures for organization of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, health care and social follow-up of HIV positive children and their families. Joint Order of MoH, MoES, MoFYS, the State Department for Enforcement of Sentences and the MoLSP No 740/1030/4154/321/614а as of November 23, 2007. Kiev: State Department for Enforcement of Sentences; 2007.

Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act of 1998, Section. 32 Republic Act No. 8504. Metro Manila: Congress of the Philippines; 1998.

Dempsey AG et al. Patterns of disclosure among youth who are HIV- positive: a multisite study. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012;50(3):315–317.
(http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(11)00209-6/abstract, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV Care and Treatment, A Training Curriculum for Health Workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012. (http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).


Adherence

Websites for adolescents living with HIV:

Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

HYPNet Adherence guidelines for adolescents and young adults living with HIV. London: HIV Young Persons Network; 2013.
(http://www.hypnet.org.uk/files/guidance/HYPNet%20Adherence%20Guidelines%202013.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
(http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241545992.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-Infected adults and adolescents: Considerations for antiretroviral use in special patient populations: HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Rockville: HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents – A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC); 2011.
(http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv-guidelines/21/hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults, accessed 7 March 2014).

Agwu AL et al. Antiretroviral treatment, management challenges and outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;16:18579.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/18579, accessed 7 March 2014).

Peralta L et al. Antiretroviral treatment and adherence: Treating adolescents with HIV – Tools for building skills in cultural competence, clinical care, and support. Newark: The AIDS Education and Training Centers; 2007
(http://www.hivcareforyouth.org/adol?page=md-module&mod=02-00, accessed 7 March 2014).

Nachega JB et al. Antiretroviral therapy adherence, virologic and immunologic outcomes in adolescents compared with adults in southern Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2009;51:65-71.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19282780, accessed 7 March 2014).

Chandwani S,et al. Predictors of antiretroviral medication adherence among a diverse cohort of adolescents with HIV. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012;51:242-51.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921134, accessed 7 March 2014).

Bygrave H et al. Antiretroviral therapy outcomes among adolescents and youth in rural Zimbabwe. PLoS One. 2012;7:e52856.
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0052856, accessed 7 March 2014).

Wong FL et al. Antiretroviral treatment strategies in highly treatment experienced perinatally HIV-infected youth. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal. 2012;31:1279-83.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926213, accessed 7 March 2014).

Bakanda C et al. Survival of HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: findings from a nationally representative cohort in Uganda. PLoS One. 2011;6:e19261.
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0019261, accessed 7 March 2014).

Lowenthal E et al. Perinatally acquired HIV infection in adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa: a review of emerging challenges. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2014; (13)70363-3.
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(13)70363-3/abstract, accessed 7 March 2014).

Taiwo BO et al. Assessing the viorologic and adherence benefits of patient-selected HIV treatment partners in a resource-limited setting. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2010;54(1):85–92.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20418724, accessed 7 March 2014).

Simoni JM et al. Peer support and pager messaging to promote antiretroviral modifying therapy in Seattle: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2009;52(4):465–473.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19911481, accessed 7 March 2014).

Grimwood A et al. Community adherence support improves programme retention in children on antiretroviral treatment: a multicentre cohort study in South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012;15(2):17381.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22713255, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV care and treatment: A training curriculum for health workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Toolkit.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).


Sexual and Reproductive Health

Healthy, happy and hot: A young people's guide to rights. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation; 2010.
(http://www.ippf.org/resource/Healthy-Happy-and-Hot-young-peoples-guide-rights, accessed 7 March 2014).

What do I do if I am living with HIV and..: Some ideas from young women living with HIV. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation; 2011.
(http://www.ippf.org/sites/default/files/whatdoidoifleafletenglish.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Cue cards for counseling adolescents on contraception. Watertow: Pathfinder International; 2013.
(http://www.pathfinder.org/publications-tools/cue-cards-for-counseling-adolescents-on-contraception.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth-centred counselling for HIV/STI prevention and promotion of sexual and reproductive health: A guide for front-line providers. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization; 2005.
(http://www2.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2009/youth-centered%20counseling.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Strengthening the adolescent component of HIV/AIDS and reproductive health programmes: a training course for public health managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/youth_hiv_reproductive_health/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services: guidance and recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/102539/1/9789241506748_eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 7 March 2014)

Adolescent job aid: A handy desk reference tool for primary level health workers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/adolescence/9789241599962/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Medical eligibility criteria for conceptive use: A WHO family planning cornerstone. Fourth Edition, 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
(http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241563888_eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241548595/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/cancers/screening_and_treatment_of_precancerous_lesions/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control - a healthier future for girls and women: WHO guidance note. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/cancers/9789241505147/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Programmatic and research considerations for hormonal contraception for women at risk of HIV and women living with HIV: Policy Implications. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/rhr_12_09/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guidance on couples HIV testing and counselling - including antiretroviral therapy for treatment and prevention in serodiscordant couples: Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/9789241501972/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guidance on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for serodiscordant couples, men and transgender women who have sex with men at high risk of HIV: Recommendations for use in the context of demonstration projects. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75188/1/9789241503884_eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Guidance on the management of sexual and reproductive health of adolescents living with HIV. London: HIV Young Persons Network, Children’s HIV Association, British HIV Association; 2011.
(http://www.hypnet.org.uk/guidelines.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent and youth, sexual reproductive health: Opportunities, approaches and choices. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization; 2008.
(http://www2.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2009/sexual_health_final.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and Facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV care and treatment: A training curriculum for health workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Toolkit.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Defining sexual health: report of a technical consultation on sexual health, 28–31 January 2002, Geneva. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2006.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/sexual_health/defining_sexual_health.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Young people today. Time to act now: Why adolescents and young people need comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services in Eastern and Southern Africa. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2013.
(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002234/223447E.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Family planning 2013: Visions, voices and priorities of young people living with and affected by HIV. Hove: International HIV/AIDS Alliance; 2013.
(http://www.aidsalliance.org/publicationsdetails.aspx?id=90666, accessed 7 March 2014).

Birungi H et al. Sexual behavior and desires among adolescents perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda: implications for programming. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(2):184-7.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167668)

Birungi H et al. Preventive service needs of young people perinatally-infected with HIV in Uganda. AIDS Care. 2009 Jun;21(6):725-31.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19806488, accessed 7 March 2014).

Mburu G et al. Rights-based services for adolescents living with HIV: adolescent self-efficacy and implications for health systems in Zambia. Reproductive Health Matters. 2013;21(41):176-85.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684200)


Service Delivery and Retention

Strengthening the health sector response to care, support, treatment and prevention for young people living with HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_08_02/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Mapping HIV services and policies for adolescents: A survey of 10 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/focus_areas/care_and_support/resources/report/mapping_hiv_services?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_content=ALHIVMAP&utm_campaign=Afro, accessed 7 March 2014).

Addressing the needs of young people living with HIV: A guide for professionals. Amsterdam: Stop AIDS Now!; 2011.
(http://stopaidsnow.org/sites/stopaidsnow.org/files/PY_Adressing%20the%20needs%20of%20young%20people%20living%20with%20HIV.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Field lessons: Strengthening health services and outcomes for adolescents living with HIV. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2013.
(http://www.youngpeopleandhiv.org/files/LESSONS_LEARNED_ALHIV_April2013.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Provide: Strengthening youth-friendly services. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation; 2008.
(http://www.ippf.org/resources/publications/inspireprovide-strengthening-youth-friendly-services, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth-friendly services: A manual for service providers. New York: EngenderHealth; 2002.
(http://www.engenderhealth.org/pubs/gender/youth-friendly-services.php, accessed 7 March 2014).

Keys to youth-friendly services. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation; 2011.
(http://www.ippf.org/resources/publications/Keys-youth-friendly-services, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Toolkit.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV—Training manual. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Training_Manual.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Good practice guide: Integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights. Hove: International HIV/AIDS Alliance; 2010.
(http://www.aidsalliance.org/publicationsdetails.aspx?id=507, accessed 7 March 2014).

Integrating HIV voluntary counselling and testing services into reproductive health settings: Stepwise guidelines for programme planners, managers and service providers. Bangkok: IPPF South Asia Regional Office and UNFPA; 2004.
(https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2004/integrating_hiv.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Rapid assessment tool for sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages - a generic guide. London: IPPF, UNFPA, WHO, UNAIDS, GNP+, ICW, and Young Positives; 2008.
(http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2009/rapid_assesment_2009.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

A handbook for integrating sexual and reproductive health and rights into HIV programmes. Harare: SAfAIDS; 2010.
(http://safaids.net/files/SRHR_HandbookForHIVProgrammers.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

HIV & AIDS services worldwide. London: NAM Publications; 2013.
(http://www.aidsmap.com/resources/HIV-AIDS-services-worldwide/page/1412417, accessed 7 March 2014).

Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
(http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Making health services adolescent-friendly: developing national quality standards for adolescent-friendly health services. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/adolescence/9789241503594/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent-friendly health services: An agenda for change. Geneva: World health Organization; 2002.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_02_14/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Second global consultation on service provision for adolescents living with HIV: Consensus statement. Amsterdam: UNICEF, WHO, Family Health International, GNP+, Johns Hopkins University, Makerere University and Uganda Paediatrics Association; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/cons_statement_alhiv/en/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Serving HIV-positive youth. Washington DC: Advocates for Youth; 2008.
(http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/hivpositive.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and Facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Transitioning of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Technical brief. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2012.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_TechnicalBrief_ALHIV_Transition.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV care and treatment: A training curriculum for health workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).

Lost in transition: Current issues faced by adolescents living with HIV in Asia Pacific. Bangkok: Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS; 2013.
(http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Lost_in_Transitions.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Moving on positively: A guide for youth, caregivers and providers. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Community AIDS Resource Enhancement; 2012.
(http://www.gottransition.org/UploadedFiles/Document/42/Moving_on_Positively.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Transitioning your HIV+ youth to health adulthood: A guide for health care providers. New York: Transition Consortium; 2007. (http://www.hivcareforyouth.org/pdf/TransitioningYouth.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Transitioning HIV-infected adolescents into adult care. New York: New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute; 2011.
(http://www.hivguidelines.org/clinical-guidelines/adolescents/transitioning-hiv-infected-adolescents-into-adult-care/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Transition HIV+ youth from adolescent to adult services: Adolescent provider toolkit. San Francisco: HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau; 2010.
(https://careacttarget.org/content/transition-hiv-youth-adolescent-adult-services-adolescent-provider-toolkit, accessed 7 March 2014).

CHIVA guidance on transition for adolescents living with HIV. London: Children’s HIV Association; 2010.
(http://www.chiva.org.uk/professionals/health/guidelines/youngpeople/transition.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Flynn PM et al. Transitioning HIV-infected youth into adult health care. Pediatrics. 2013;132(1):192-7.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23796739, accessed 7 March 2014).

Strengthening the health sector response to adolescent health and development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/cah_adh_flyer_2010_12_en.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Talisuna-Alamo S et al. Socioeconomic support reduces nonretention in a comprehensive, community-based antiretroviral therapy programme in Uganda. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2012;59(4):e52–e59.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217680, accessed 7 March 2014).

Nglazi MD et al. Treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents attending a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012;12(1):21.
(http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/12/21/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Patient linkage, retention and follow-up in HIV care standard operating procedures. Mbabane: Swaziland National AIDS Programme, Ministry of Health Swaziland; 2012.
(http://www.k4health.org/sites/default/files/LINKAGE_SOP_FINAL_FOR_PRINT_23FEB2012.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Retention in HIV programmes: defining the challenges and identifying solutions: meeting report, 13–15 September 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
(http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503686_eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Linkage and retention in pre-ART care: Best practices and experiences from 14 countries. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAROne_Report_Retention_Linkages_web.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Finding HIV–positive youth and bringing them into care. Washington DC: AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families; 2005.
(http://www.nastad.org/Docs/Public/Resource/2006327_Finding%20HIV-Positive%20Youth%20(AIDS%20Alliance).pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).


Living positively

A qualitative review of psychosocial support interventions for young people living with HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
(http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2009/WHO_FCH_CAH_ADH_09.05_eng.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Independent Life. Leaving home and standing on your own two feet: A guide for young people living with HIV. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/843048/independent_life.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescents count today: Improving the quality of life of adolescents living with HIV and affected by HIV in Kenya. London: International Planned parenthood Federation; 2013.
(http://www.ippfar.org/sites/default/files/web_IPPF_ACT%20photobook.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Life looking forward. Staying safe, well and happy on the way to adulthood: A guide for young people living with HIV. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/1110718/life_looking_forward.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Life and rights. Knowing your rights: A guide for people living with HIV in their teens and early adulthood. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/843066/life_and_rights.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Their Life. A leaflet for parents and cares of young people who are living with HIV. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/874849/their_life.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Student life. Going to university or college: A guide for people living with HIV in their teens and early adulthood. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/843042/student_life.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Working life: Finding jobs, working and career planning: guide for young people living with HIV. London: National Children's Bureau; 2012.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/843072/working_life.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Nutritional support from birth to adolescence: Facilitators manual. Stellenbosch: South to South Program for Comprehensive Family HIV Care & Treatment; 2012.
(http://sun025.sun.ac.za/portal/page/portal/South_to_South/uploads/FXB%20NUTRITIONAL%20SUPPORT_FM.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Teen club life skills curriculum. Botswana: Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative (BIPAI); 2012.
(http://www.botswanateenclub.org/what-we-do/life-skills-curriculum, accessed 7 March 2014).

Teen talk: A guide for positive living. Botswana: Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative (BIPAI); 2010.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/focus_areas/treatment/resources/pediatric_disclosure_materials/teen_talk?utm_source=blog&utm_medium=social&utm_content=TeenTalk&utm_campaign=SHARE, accessed 7 March 2014).

Sexual and reproductive health for young HIV positive adolescents: The club concept in support groups. Johannesburg: Anova Health Institute; 2011. (http://www.anovahealth.co.za/resources/entry/sexual_and_reproductive_health_for_young_hiv_positive_adolescents/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Positive voices, Positive choices: A comprehensive training curriculum for adolescent peer educators. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2011.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/positive-voices-positive-choices-a-comprehensive-training-curriculum-for-ad, accessed 7 March 2014).

Positive connections. Leading information and support groups for adolescents living with HIV. Durham: Family Health International; 2013.
(http://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/positive-connections-2013.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Developing support services for children, young people and families living with HIV: A handbook for service providers. London: National Children's Bureau; 2006.
(http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/233267/hiv_handbook.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Positive Learning: meeting the needs of young people living with HIV (YPLHIV) in the education sector. Paris: GNP+ and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2012.
(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002164/216485E.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Mavhu W et al. Enhancing psychosocial support for HIV positive adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e70254.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23894625, accessed 7 March 2014).

Remien RH et al. Long-term psychosocial challenges for people living with HIV: let’s not forget the individual in our global response to the pandemic. AIDS. 2007;21:5S55–63.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090270, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and Facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV care and treatment: A training curriculum for health workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013.
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Toolkit.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Claude A et al. Understanding the mental health of youth living with perinatal HIV infection: lessons learned and current challenges. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;16:18593.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/18593, accessed 7 March 2014).

Laughton B et al. Neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected children: a concern for adolescence. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;16:18603.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/18603, accessed 7 March 2014).

Earls FG et al. Promoting child and adolescent mental health in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2008;49(3):295–312.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18221344, accessed 7 March 2014).

Measuring the education sector response to HIV and AIDS: Guidelines for the construction and use of core indicators. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 2013.
(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002230/223028E.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Special needs of in-school HIV-positive young people in Uganda. New York: The Population Council; 2009.
(http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/2009RH_InSchoolHIVUganda.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).


Cross-cutting issues

Training

Adolescent job aid: A handy desk reference tool for primary level health workers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/adolescence/9789241599962/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

IMAI one-day orientation on adolescents living with HIV: Participants manual and Facilitator guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/fch_cah_9789241598972/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Orientation programme on adolescent health for health-care providers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
(http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/9241591269/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

Adolescent HIV care and treatment: A training curriculum for health workers. New York: ICAP Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; 2012.
(http://icap.columbia.edu/resources/detail/adolescent-hiv-care-and-treatment, accessed 7 March 2014).

Toolkit for transition of care and other services for adolescents living with HIV: Training manual. Arlington: AIDSTAR-One; 2013
(http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAR-One_ALHIV_Training_Manual.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Treating adolescents with HIV: Tools for building skills in cultural competence, clinical care, and support. The AIDS Education and Training Centers. 2007.
(http://www.hivcareforyouth.org/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Dewing S et al. “It’s important to take your medication everyday ok?” An evaluation of counselling by lay counsellors for ARV adherence support in the Western Cape, South Africa. AIDS and Behaviour. 2012;17(1):203–212.
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10461-012-0211-4, accessed 7 March 2014).

Lewin SA et al. Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;7(3):CD004015.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20238326, accessed 7 March 2014).

Selke HM et al. Task-shifting of antiretroviral delivery from health care workers to persons living with HIVAIDS: clinical outcomes of a community-based programme in Kenya. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2010;55(4):483–490.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683336, accessed 7 March 2014).




Key populations

Guidance brief: HIV interventions for most-at-risk young people. New York: Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People; 2007.
(http://www.unfpa.org/hiv/iatt/docs/mostatrisk.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Young people most at risk of HIV: A meeting report and discussion paper from the Interagency Youth Working Group, U.S. Agency for International Development, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). New York: Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People, and FHI360: 2010.
(http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/iattyp/docs/Young%20People%20Most%20at%20Risk%20of%20HIV.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Policy brief: Self-stigma among young men who have sex with men and young transgender women and the linkages with HIV in Asia. Bangkok: Youth Voices Count; 2013.
(http://www.aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/community/Policy_Brief_on_YMSM_and_TG_Self-stigma.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Young people and the law in Asia and the Pacific: A review of laws and policies affecting young people’s access to sexual and reproductive health and HIV services. Bangkok: UNESCO, UNFPA, UNAIDS, UNDP and Youth Lead; 2013.
(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002247/224782E.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth and the global HIV pandemic: Reaching key affected populations and empowering a generation. Washington: Advocates for Youth; 2012.
(http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/youthhivpandemic.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).




Involving adolescents

GIYPA Guidebook: Supporting organisations and networks to scale up the meaningful involvement of young people living with HIV. Amsterdam: GNP+ Y+; 2012.
(http://gnpplus.honne.nl/assets/2012_Y_GIYPA_guidebook_organisations.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

GIYPA Roadmap: Supporting young people living with HIV to be meaningfully involved in the HIV response. Amsterdam: GNP+ Y+; 2012.
(http://gnpplus.honne.nl/assets/2012_Y_GIYPA_roadmap_youth.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth participation in development: A guide for development agencies and policy makers. London: DFID–CSO Youth Working Group; 2010.
(http://ygproject.org/sites/default/files/6962_Youth_Participation_in_Development.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth participation guide: Assessment, planning, and implementation. Research Triangle Park: Family Health International; 2008.
(http://www.unfpa.org/public/publications/pid/1325, accessed 7 March 2014).

Hear Our Voices! Making sure young people's voices are heard. Amsterdam: Stop AIDS Now!; 2009.
(http://stopaidsnow.org/node/120, accessed 7 March 2014).

The Y+ leadership code. GNP+, Y +.
(http://www.yplusleadership.org/y-leadership-code, accessed 7 March 2014).

Teen Leaders Program. Botswana: Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative (BIPAI); 2012.
(http://www.botswanateenclub.org/what-we-do/teen-leaders-program, accessed 7 March 2014).

ACT 2015: One goal, many voices. CrowdOutAIDS: Geneva; 2012
(http://www.crowdoutaids.org/wordpress/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth peer education in reproductive health and HIV/AIDS: Progress, process, and programming for the future. Research Triangle Park: Family Health International; 2006.
(http://www.k4health.org/sites/default/files/Peer%20Education%20Overview.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Participation rights of adolescents: A strategic approach. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2001.
(http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/Participation_Rights_of_Adolescents_Rajani_2001.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

I am one of 7 million – YPLHIV advocacy messages and advocacy brief. Amsterdam: GNP+ and the World AIDS Campaign; 2011.
(http://www.gnpplus.net/resources/i-am-one-of-7-million-yplhiv-advocacy-messages-and-advocacy-brief/, accessed 7 March 2014).

Youth leadership: Recommendations for sustainability. Washington: Advocates for Youth, aids2031, CHOICE for youth and sexuality, GYCA, World AIDS Campaign and Youth R.I.S.E., the Youth Coalition; 2009.
(http://www.youthcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/youth_sustainability_web.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).




Monitoring, Evaluation and Research

Quality assessment guidebook: A guide to assessing health services for adolescent clients. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
(http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/adolescence/fch_cah_9789241598859/en/index.html, accessed 7 March 2014).

MEASURE DHS STAT compiler.
(http://www.statcompiler.com/)

Young key populations at higher risk of HIV in Asia and the Pacific: Making a case with strategic information: Guidance Report. Bangkok: UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office; 2013.
(http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Young_key_populations_at_high_risk_of_HIV_in_Asia_Pacific.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Consultation on strategic information and HIV prevention among most-at-risk adolescents: Consultation report. New York: UNICEF in collaboration with the Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People; 2009.
(http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/MARA_Consultation_REPORT_--_Final_v3.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Securing the future today: Synthesis of strategic Information on HIV and young people. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2011.
(http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2011/20110727_JC2112_Synthesis_report_en.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).

Sohn AH etal. The changing epidemiology of the global paediatric HIV epidemic: keeping track of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;16:18555.
(http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/pages/view/thematicadolescents, accessed 7 March 2014).

Gopalappa C et al. HIV Prevalence Patterns by Age and Sex: Exploring Differences among 19 Countries DHS Analytical Studies No. 40. Maryland: ICF International; 2013.
(http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnaec454.pdf, accessed 7 March 2014).